Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market - Insights

Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification is a type of method in molecular biology, which is used to amplify RNA sequences. Isothermal Nucleic acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) is segregated into several methods such as transcription mediated amplification, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, signal mediated amplification of RNA technology, and others. Such methods of isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology to amplify RNA sequences are expected to rapidly drive the growth of the market during the forecast period.

The global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market was valued at US$ 1,763.0 million in 2018 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 8.3% during the forecast period (2019-2027).

Figure 1. Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market Share (%), by Product Type

Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology  | Coherent Market Insights

(Source: Coherent Market Insights, 2020)

Manufacturers are engaged in adopting inorganic growth strategies such as collaborations, and mergers and acquisitions to enhance their product portfolio and strengthen their position in the market

The increasing collaboration activities by key players is expected to boost the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market growth. For instance, in January 2017, Diagenode S.A. entered into a collaboration with Heidelberg University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). Under this collaboration, Diagenode S.A focuses on development of high-sensitivity DNA amplification method. This method is for RNA sequencing library preparation solutions.

Key players in the market are focused on product launches for molecular diagnosis, which is expected to propel the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market growth

For instance, in April 2019, QuantaBio launched new freeze-dried lyophilized single-reaction reagent, Qscript lyo 1-step. Qscript lyo 1-step is a dry, stable, easy, and better 1-step RT-qPCR (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). It is highly sensitive and reproducible RT-qPCR. The reagent contains thermo-stable polymerase.

Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market - Regional Analysis

North America isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market is expected to account for the largest market share during the forecast period, owing to increasing product launches by key players. For instance, in September 2017, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. launched RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) kit in the U.S market. RT-PCR assay kit is a one-step procedure, where reverse transcription and gene amplification is performed in a single tube. RT-PCR assay kit is used for DNA identification and amplification.

Moreover, Europe is also expected to witness significant growth in the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market, owing to increasing product launches in the region. For instance, in December 2019, Mast Group Ltd., a European company, launched MAST ISOPLEX CRE-ART kit, which uses loop mediated amplification (LAMP) kit for the rapid molecular detection of the most seven prevalent carbapenemase families: OXA-48, OXA-23, OXA-24/40, KPC, VIM, NDM and IMP. The carbapenemase family involves enterobacteriaceae (E.coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, and Shigella), where some of them reside in the gut of humans while the remaining are parasites.

INAAT offers advantage over the conventional detection system by detecting the test sample in 30 minutes run time and availability of ready to use lyophilized pellets containing primers and reagents, which are used directly for the reaction, therefore the sample preparation process is completely eliminated. The above factors are expected to fuel the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology market growth over the forecast period.

Figure 2: Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market Value (US$ Mn), By Region

Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology  | Coherent Market Insights

(Source: Coherent Market Insights, 2020)

Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market - Competitive Landscape

Key players operating in the isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market include Alere Inc., Becton, Dickinson & Company, BioHelix Corporation, BioMerieux Biotechnology Company, Hologic Gene-Probe, QIAGEN Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Lucigen Corporation, Quidel Corporation, and NuGEN.

Isothermal nucleic acid technologies have applications in the field of recombinant DNA and molecular biology techniques. These techniques are used in the detection and analysis of small quantity of nucleic acids. Polymerase chain reaction is based on isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is most widely used method for DNA amplification. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used for the detection and identification of infectious diseases, genetic disorders, and for research purposes. PCR consists of thermocycling machine, which facilitates separation and amplification of DNA strands.

Market Dynamics

Increasing approvals from healthcare regulatory authorities for innovative technologies is expected to drive the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market growth

For instance, in October 2018, Abbott laboratories received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its next-generation Influenza A & B2 and Strep A2 molecular assays. These assays are used for the molecular detection and differentiation of influenza A and B virus. Next-generation Influenza A & B2 and Strep A2 molecular assays are currently available on ID NOW platform, which is a rapid isothermal system. It is used for the detection of infectious diseases such as influenza.

Rising product launches by key players is expected to boost the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market growth

For instance, in July 2017, TwistDx Inc. launched TwistAmp, a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) kit. It is used for DNA/RNA amplification. TwistAmp is an isothermal alternative to polymerase chain reaction PCR.

Key features of the study:

  • This report provides in-depth analysis of the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market size (US$ Mn), and compound annual growth rate (CAGR %) for the forecast period (2019-2027), considering 2018 as the base year
  • It elucidates potential revenue opportunities across different segments and explains attractive investment proposition matrices for this market
  • This study also provides key insights about market drivers, restraints, opportunities, new product launches or approval, market trends, regional outlook, and competitive strategies adopted by key players
  • It profiles key players in the global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market based on the following parameters – company overview, financial performance, product portfolio, geographical presence, distribution strategies, key developments, and strategies
  • Key players covered as a part of this study include Alere Inc., Becton, Dickinson & Company, BioHelix Corporation, BioMerieux Biotechnology Company, Hologic Gene-Probe, QIAGEN Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Lucigen Corporation, Quidel Corporation, and NuGEN
  • Insights from this report would allow marketers and management authorities of companies to make informed decision with respect to their future product launch, governmental initiatives, technological up-gradation, market expansion, and marketing tactics
  • The global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market report caters to various stakeholders in this industry including investors, product manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers for isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) market, research and consulting firms, new entrants, and financial analysts

Detailed Segmentation:

  • Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By Product Type:
    • Instruments
    • Reagents & Kits
  • Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By Application:
    • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
    • Blood Screening
    • Others
  • Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By Technology:
    • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
    • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
    • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
    • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
    • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
    • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
  • Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By End User:
    • Academic and Research Institutes
    • Diagnostic Laboratories
    • Others
  • Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market , By Region:
    • North America
      • By Product Type:
        • Instruments
        • Reagents & Kits
      • By Technology:
        • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
        • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
        • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
        • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
        • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
        • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • By Application:
        • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
        • Blood Screening
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Academic and Research Institutes
        • Diagnostic Laboratories
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • S.
        • Canada
    • Europe
      • By Product Type:
        • Instruments
        • Reagents & Kits
      • By Technology:
        • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
        • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
        • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
        • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
        • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
        • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • By Application:
        • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
        • Blood Screening
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Academic and Research Institutes
        • Diagnostic Laboratories
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • U.K.
        • Germany
        • Italy
        • Spain
        • France
        • Russia
        • Rest of Europe
    • Asia Pacific
      • By Product Type:
        • Instruments
        • Reagents & Kits
      • By Technology
        • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
        • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
        • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
        • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
        • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
        • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • By Application:
        • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
        • Blood Screening
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Academic and Research Institutes
        • Diagnostic Laboratories
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • Australia
        • India
        • China
        • Japan
        • ASEAN
        • South Korea
        • Rest of Asia Pacific
    • Latin America
      • By Product Type:
        • Instruments
        • Reagents & Kits
      • By Technology:
        • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
        • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
        • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
        • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
        • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
        • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • By Application:
        • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
        • Blood Screening
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Academic and Research Institutes
        • Diagnostic Laboratories
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • Brazil
        • Mexico
        • Argentina
        • Rest of Latin America
    • Middle East
      • By Product Type:
        • Instruments
        • Reagents & Kits
      • By Technology:
        • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
        • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
        • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
        • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
        • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
        • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • By Application:
        • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
        • Blood Screening
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Academic and Research Institutes
        • Diagnostic Laboratories
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • GCC Countries
        • Israel
        • Rest of Middle East
    • Africa
      • By Product Type:
        • Instruments
        • Reagents & Kits
      • By Technology:
        • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
        • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
        • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
        • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
        • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
        • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • By Application:
        • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
        • Blood Screening
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Academic and Research Institutes
        • Diagnostic Laboratories
        • Others
      • By Country/Region:
        • South Africa
        • Central Africa
        • North Africa
  • Company Profiles
    • Alere Inc.,*
      • Company Overview
      • Product Portfolio
      • Financial Performance
      • Recent Highlights
      • Strategies
    • Becton, Dickinson & Company
    • BioHelix Corporation
    • BioMerieux Biotechnology Company
    • Hologic Gene-Probe
    • QIAGEN Company
    • Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.
    • Lucigen Corporation
    • Quidel Corporation
    • NuGEN

 “*” marked represents similar segmentation in other categories in the respective section.

Table of Contents

  1. Research Objectives and Assumptions
    • Research Objectives
    • Assumptions
    • Abbreviations
  2. Market Overview
    • Report Description
      • Market Definition and Scope
    • Executive Summary
      • Market Snippet, By Product Type
      • Market Snippet, By Technology
      • Market Snippet, By Application
      • Market Snippet, By End User
      • Market Snippet, By Region
    • Coherent Opportunity Map (COM)
  3. Market Dynamics, Regulations, and Trends Analysis
    • Market Dynamics
      • Drivers
      • Restraints
      • Market Opportunities
    • Impact Analysis
    • Market Trends
    • Key Developments
    • Technology Advancements
    • Merger and Acquisition
    • Regulatory Scenario
    • PORTER’S Five Forces
    • PEST Analysis
  4. Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By Product Type, 2019-2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2019 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Instruments
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Reagents
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  5. Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By Technology, 2019-2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2019 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Helicase Dependent Amplification (HAD)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Transcription Medicated Amplification (TMA)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Single Primer Isothermal Amplification (SPIA)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  6. Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market, By Application, 2019-2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2019 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Infectious Disease Diagnostics
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Blood Screening
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  7. Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market By End User, 2019-2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2019 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Academic and Research Institutes
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Diagnostic Laboratories
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  8. Global, Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market By Region, 2019-2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, By Region, 2019 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, By Region, 2017 – 2027
      • Regional Trends
    • North America
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Product  Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Technology, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Application  , 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • U.S.
        • Canada
    • Europe
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Product Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Technology , 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • U.K.
        • Germany
        • Italy
        • France
        • Spain
        • Russia
        • Rest of Europe
    • Asia Pacific
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Product Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Technology, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User  2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • Japan
        • China
        • India
        • ASEAN
        • Australia
        • South Korea
        • Rest of Asia Pacific
    • Latin America
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Product Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Technology, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • Brazil
        • Mexico
        • Argentina
        • Rest of Latin America
    • Africa
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Product  Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Technology, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country/Region, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • North Africa
        • Central Africa
        • South Africa
    • Middle East
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Product Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Technology, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • GCC Countries
        • Israel
        • Rest of Middle East
  9. Competitive Landscape
    • Heat Map Analysis
    • Company Profiles
      • Alere, Inc.
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Becton, Dickinson & Company
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • BioHelix Corporation
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • BioMerieux Biotechnology Company
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Hologic Gene-Probe
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • QIAGEN Company
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Thermo Fisher Scientific
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Lucigen Corporation
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Quidel Corporation
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • NuGEN
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
    • Analyst Views
  10. Section
    • References
    • Research Methodology
    • About us and Sales Contact

*Browse 33 market data tables and 31 figures on “Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market” - Global forecast to 2027”.

Research Methodology

Coherent Market Insights followsa comprehensive research methodology focused on providing the most precise market analysis. The company leverages a data triangulation model which helps company to gauge the market dynamics and provide accurate estimates. Key components of the research methodologies followed for all our market reports include:

  • Primary Research (Trade Surveys and Experts Interviews)
  • Desk Research
  • Proprietor Data Analytics Model

In addition to this, Coherent Market Insights has access to a wide range of the regional and global reputed paid data bases, which helps the company to figure out the regional and global market trends and dynamics. The company analyses the industry from the 360 Degree Perspective i.e. from the Supply Side and Demand Side which enables us to provide granular details of the entire ecosystem for each study. Finally, a Top-Down approach and Bottom-Up approach is followed to arrive at ultimate research findings.


Data Triangulation Methodology | Coherent Market Insights

Coherent Market Insights desk research is based on a principle set of research techniques:

  • National level desk research: It Includes research analysis of regional players, regional regulatory bodies, regional trade associations, and regional organization.
  • Multinational level desk research: The research team keeps a track of multinational players, global regulatory bodies, global trade associations, and global organization.

Coherent Market Insights has a large amount of in-house repository of industry database. This is leveraged as a burner for initiating a new research study. Key secondary sources include:

  • Governmental bodies, National and international social welfare institutions, and organizations creating economic policies among others.
  • Trade association, National and international media and trade press.
  • Company Annual reports, SEC filings, Corporate Presentations, press release, news, and specification sheet of manufacturers, system integrators, brick and mortar - distributors and retailers, and third party online commerce players.
  • Scientific journals, and other technical magazines and whitepapers.

Market Analysis | Coherent Market Insights

Preliminary Data Mining

The raw data is obtained through the secondary findings, in house repositories, and trade surveys. It is then filtered to ensure that the relevant information including industry dynamics, trends, and outlook is retained for further research process.

Data Standardization

Holistic approach is used to ensure that the granular and uncommon parameters are taken into consideration to ensure accurate results. The information from the paid databases are further combined to the raw data in order to standardize it.

Coherent Statistical model

We arrive at our final research findings through simulation models. Coherent Data Analytics Model is a statistical tool that helps company to forecast market estimates. Few of the parameters considered as a part of the statistical model include:

  • Micro-economic indicators
  • Macro-economic indicators
  • Environmental indicators
  • Socio-political indicators
  • Technology indicators

Data Processing

Once the findings are derived from the statistical model, large volume of data is process to confirm accurate research results. Data analytics and processing tools are adopted to process large chunk of collected informative data. In case, a client customizes the study during the process, the research finding till then are benchmarked, and the process for new research requirement is initiated again.

Data Validation

This is the most crucial stage of the research process. Primary Interviews are conducted to validate the data and analysis. This helps in achieving the following purposes:

  • It provides first-hand information on the market dynamics, outlook, and growth parameters.
  • Industry experts validates the estimates which helps the company to cement the on-going research study.
  • Primary research includes online surveys, face-to face interviews, and telephonic interviews.

The primary research is conducted with the ecosystem players including, but not limited to:

  • Raw Material Suppliers
  • Manufacturers
  • System Integrators
  • Distributors
  • End-users