Monovaccine (Epstein - Barr virus) Market- Insights
Mononucleosis also known as mono or kissing disease is an infectious illness caused by Epstein-Barr virus. This virus is generally spread through saliva hence, commonly called as kissing disease. It can also be spread through other ways such as sharing drinks or utensils.
Epstein-Barr virus also known as human herpesvirus 4 is the causative agent of mono/kissing disease. Epstein–Barr virus is the most common type of virus in humans and is one of eight known human herpes virus types in the herpes family. According to the data published by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in 2018, Epstein–Barr virus infects around 9 out of 10 people, globally at some point in their lives.
Frequent research and development activities and funding by various organizations is expected to lead to the development of monovaccine in future
Various organizations are focusing on research and development of novel monovaccines or Epstein - Barr virus vaccines, which may spur interest of industry players to conduct research and development in this area of high unmet needs.
For instance, in April 2018, researchers from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington developed a human antibody in laboratory that blocks infection by mono Epstein-Barr virus or EBV. The development of the antibody along with the site it targets, opens a new path to developing effective monovaccines.
Furthermore, various organizations are involved in granting funding to various universities for development of novel Epstein - Barr virus vaccine. Such funding and investments are expected to support the research and development of vaccines, thereby resulting in the development of novel Epstein - Barr virus vaccine in the near future.
For instance, in 2017, University of Kansas School of Engineering and School of Pharmacy received US$ 1.8 million, five-year grant form National Institutes of Health for conducting research to develop an effective vaccine for EBV.
Figure 1. Global Monovaccine (Epstein - Barr virus) Market, Number of Cases Attributable to EBV Each Year
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2018)
North America and Europe are expected to be a potential regions for monovaccines in future
High prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection and disease associated with it is expected to propel growth of the global monovaccine (Epstein-Barr virus) market. According to data published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common human viruses. According to the same source, in the U.S., it was estimated that around nine out of ten adults have antibodies that show that they have a current or past EBV infection.
The number of research and development activities for development of novel monovaccines in Europe are growing in frequency.
For instance, in March 2017, Cancer Research U.K. completed its phase 1b of clinical trials of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA-EBNA1/LMP2) vaccine. It is being used to treat nasopharyngeal cancer patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus infection.
In January 2019, researchers and scientists from the German Cancer Research Center developed a new strategy for a vaccine that targets different EBV virus life phases and has potential to provide effective protection against EBV infection.
Such, initiatives from several organizations for development of novel monovaccines (Epstein - Barr virus) are expected to spur interest of key players to invest in R&D activities.
Figure 2. Global Monovaccine (Epstein - Barr virus) Market, Pipeline Analysis
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2018)
Currently, there is no approved EBV vaccine in the market. Various barriers in the development and gaining approval for EBV vaccines is expected to be a major factor negatively effecting the market growth. Some of the barriers in development of an EBV vaccine include:
Some of the barrier related in development of EBV vaccine includes: the difficulty of performing clinical trials, lack of knowledge of immune correlates for protection against EBV infection and disease, and limitations in animal models to study protection against EBV infection and disease.
Universities and organizations involved in development of monovaccine (Epstein - Barr virus) include Cancer Research UK, National Institutes of Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Genocea Biosciences, Inc., Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, German Cancer Research Institute, and University of Minnesota.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects human B cells and spreads the infection throughout the entire reticuloendothelial system (RES). The virus is known to cause various autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis, celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. Various research studies have linked Epstein-Barr virus to certain cancers of the lymphatic system and lupus. For instance, according to the report from the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, in 2018, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. When the human body encounters foreign bodies such as virus or bacteria, it uses B-cells to produce antibodies to fight against these agents. However, in Epstein-Barr infections, the virus invades and takes control of B-cells. EBV invades B cells by producing abnormal transcription factors that regulate gene expression.
The researchers revealed that virus-derived EBNA2 transcription factor binds to several spots in the human genome that are linked to above mentioned diseases. Moreover, EBV is linked with several human cancers such as Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. However, the exact reason for EBV leading to different types of cancers is currently being studied by various researchers. For instance, according to the study published in Gynecologic Oncology Journal, 2017, researchers from the Federal University of Cariri stated that cervical carcinoma was four times more prevalent among EBV positive women than in women without EBV infection. This indicated that EBV infection increases the risk of cervical carcinoma.
Various universities are involved in frequent research and development activities for development of novel monovaccines.
For instance, since 2017, University of Kansas School of Engineering and School of Pharmacy is studying genetics of human immune responses to produce a potent vaccine for Epstein - Barr virus or EBV. Such increasing research activities by various organizations for development of novel vaccines for EBV is expected to drive the global monovaccines (Epstein - Barr virus) market growth.
Furthermore, high prevalence of various diseases related to EBV virus is expected to rise demand for its vaccine in future.
For instance, according to data published by Cancer Research U.K. in 2014, around 62,400 cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma were recorded worldwide, out of which around 28,600 cases were associated with Epstein-Barr virus. According to the same source, it was estimated that EBV is responsible for an estimated 45% of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the U.K., annually.
According to data published by Cancer Research U.K. in 2014, EBV is a very common virus that can increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. According to same source, there were around 80,000 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma worldwide, out of which around 78,100 cases were associated with Epstein-Barr virus.
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