Plant-based Vaccines Market - Insights
Plant serves as an important source to produce cost-effective vaccine derivatives. Plant-based production of vaccine helps to reduce economic burden of infectious disease in emerging economies, owing to its large-scale production and cost-efficiency. Various clinical trials are focused on development of plant-based vaccines in therapeutic indications such as influenza, dengue, flu, and Ebola virus, which can be administered orally. Oral administration of these vaccines reduces the need for needles and syringes, which requires trained immunization staff and also reduces risk of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs).
The global plant-based vaccines market size is estimated to be valued at US$ 927.0 million in 2020 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 11.7% over the forecast period (2020–2026).
Global Plant-based Vaccines Market Share, By Vaccine Type: 2020 & 2026
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2018)
Increasing Number of Research & Development (R&D) Activities in Plant-based Vaccines is expected to augment the Market Growth
Existing key players and new entrants in the plant-based vaccines market are focused on extensive clinical trial studies to develop plant-based vaccines for numerous therapeutic applications.
For instance, Medicago Inc., a clinical-stage biotechnology company, which uses plant-based technologies to develop and produce novel vaccine and antibodies, is cultivating several tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) at Durham's Research Triangle Park, North America, which will be used in testing and production of the flu vaccine. In March 2018, Medicago conducted phase III clinical trials to develop flu vaccine, which is expected to be launched in the market by 2020-2021 influenza season.
Furthermore, researchers require five to six weeks for production of plant-based vaccine, as compared to five to six month period to prepare the vaccine in chicken eggs, which is currently practiced by vaccine manufacturers.
Global Plant-based Vaccines Market Share, By Source: 2020 & 2026
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2018)
Plant-Based Vaccines as an Effective Alternative to Conventional Vaccines
Besides cost-efficiency, plant-based vaccines offer several benefits over conventional egg-based vaccine production, in terms of production time and enhancing immune system of the patient. For instance, Medicago's Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (QIV) is produced using novel Virus-Like Particle (VLP) technology, which offers new approach in vaccine development and production. In VLP technology, the vaccine mimics the native structure of viruses, allowing them to easily get penetrated into patient’s immune system. Moreover, the QIV vaccine lacks core genetic material, rendering them to become non-infectious and unable to replicate. This makes plant-based vaccine safe and effective in inducing immune response of patient similar to natural infection without infecting the patient.
Plant-based vaccine production offers better alternative over egg-based and cell-based vaccine production systems, by reducing lead time and increasing reliability and versatility. Furthermore, plant-based vaccine offers greater antigen specificity in disease treatment. Plant-based vaccine production enables manufacturers to create vaccine, which precisely matches the specific strain of influenza virus in patient’s circulation, as in case of flu infection, influenza virus mutates is constantly. For instance, according to Phase III clinical data study published by Medicago, in September 2017, Medicago's VLP vaccine during the phase II clinical trial stage showed higher antibody and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) responses over comparator conventional vaccine.
However, several challenges in manufacturing of plant-based vaccines is expected to restrain growth of the market. Plant-based vaccine production is a new technology and involves complex manufacturing and regulatory process. In egg-based production, whole flu viruses are injected into eggs, which then replicate and form the basis for the vaccine.
In plant-based vaccine production method, manufacturers use only specific gene, which codes for protein called hemagglutinin, which is responsible for triggering immune system and encodes it into the tobacco plant leaves. In this context, companies need to pursue the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to state that not only plant-based vaccine is safe and effective, but also the hemagglutinin or other proteins, which can be extracted from the plant leaves are according to the mentioned standard and that the manufacturing process yields a uniform and reliable product.
Although various plant-based vaccines have been developed in various transgenic plants such as insulin in transgenic safflower, taliglucerase alfa in transgenic carrot, avian influenza vaccine in transgenic tobacco, and Ebola vaccine in transgenic tobacco, no plant-derived vaccine is yet approved for human consumption.
Moreover, some of the challenges to develop effective vaccines from downstream processing to the implementation of the vaccines include, selection of antigen & plant expression host, uniformity of dosage, and manufacturing of plant vaccines according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) procedures.
Plant-Based Vaccines Market - Regional Insights
North America is expected to be the most attractive market for plant-based vaccines over the forecast period. This is owing to high presence of various private and government research organizations focused on R&D activities to develop plant-based vaccines and high prevalence of influenza infection in this region. For instance, according a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), October 2018, during May 2018 to October 2018, 164 specimens (63 influenza A(H1N1) pdm09, 57 influenza A(H3N2), and 44 influenza B viruses) collected in the U.S. were tested for susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir). All tested viruses were sensitive to all three recommended antiviral medications.
Furthermore, key players in North America are focused on conducting clinical trials to develop plant-based vaccines for the treatment of seasonal influenza virus infection, which is further expected to drive demand for plant-based vaccines in this region. For instance, Medicago, Inc. is currently conducting phase III clinical trials to develop tobacco-based seasonal influenza vaccine, which is expected to be launched in 2019-2020.
Key players operating in the global plant-based vaccines market include, Medicago, Inc., iBio, Inc., and Icon Genetics- GmbH.
Plants are a cost-effective, safe, and efficacious platform for large-scale production of vaccine in emerging economies and have the potential via oral administration to elicit a mucosal immune response. Key players in the market are focused on Research & Development (R&D) activities for development of plant-based vaccines for the treatment of infectious diseases. This is owing to the ability of plant-based vaccines to be mass produced, with higher efficiency, while maintaining lower cost compared to conventional vaccines.
Furthermore, increasing prevalence of infectious diseases is expected to drive growth of the plant-based vaccines market. For instance, according to World Health Organization (WHO) December 2017 estimate, a seasonal influenza may result in 290,000- 650,000 deaths each year owing to respiratory diseases alone.
Plants as a vaccine source have the ability to generate complex recombinant proteins with desired structures, while maintaining biological functions and offering greater immune-specificity. Plants can be used as potential delivery system for oral vaccines. These factors propel demand for plant-based vaccines. Moreover, successful completion of ongoing clinical trials studies in the future, is expected to offer lucrative opportunity to manufacturers thus, driving growth of the plant-based vaccines market. For instance, according to clinicalTrials: September 2015 update, clinical study evaluating a safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a plant-made seasonal Quadrivalent VLP influenza vaccine in adults is currently in phase II clinical stage.
Higher efficiency of plant-based vaccines over conventional vaccines and R&D activities and clinical trials for the development plant-based are some of the factors expected to boost growth of the market. Plant-based vaccines against HIV have gained significant traction of researchers, since AIDS has evolved as an alarming health problem, which is increasing economic burden of African countries and several emerging economies. According to the The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS); in 2017, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa accounted for 95% of new HIV infections. Easy production, oral administration of plant-based vaccines, and absence of purification needs offer great advantage in designing plant-based viral vaccines.
Oral vaccines using plant-based formulations are considered as an alternative or may supplement for standard injection vaccines in the Hepatitis B (HBV) treatment, owing to low-cost production and easy vaccination. However, low efficiency and oral-tolerance are the main barrier in the production of plant-based anti-HBV vaccines. Moreover, according to a report published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, January 2013, in order to increase the efficiency of HBV antigen expression, intravenous injection of vaccine is required, as plant-produced purified HBV antigens are highly immunogenic when injected.
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