Urethral Stricture Treatment Market Insights

Urethral strictures can be caused by diagnostic or therapeutic urological procedures. As a result of the increasing geriatric population, these demand for these procedures is also increasing. Therefore, prevalence of urethral strictures is expected to become more common over the forecast period. Urethral stricture is more prevalent in men than in females. According to data published by the National Centers for Biotechnology & Information (NCBI) in January 2016, the prevalence of urethral stricture is around 200 per 100,000 in males below 65 years in the U.S.

The global urethral stricture treatment market is estimated to be valued at US$ 1,326.0 million in 2019, and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 6.0% during the forecast period (2019–2027).

Figure 1. Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market Share (%), By Type, (2019 & 2027)

Urethral Stricture Treatment  | Coherent Market Insights

Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2019)

Increasing incidence of prostate cancer, injuries, and medical conditions requiring urethral stents, dilators, and catheters is expected to drive growth of the market over the forecast period

According to data published by the National Centers for Biotechnology & Information (NCBI), urethral stricture is a common disease with prevalence of over 400 per 100,000 males across the globe in 2016. According to Cancer Research UK, prostate cancer is the most common cancer with around 47,200 new cases registered in 2015 among males in the U.K. Moreover, the incidence of prostate cancer is projected to increase by 12% between 2014 and 2035, to 233 cases per 100,000 males by 2035 in the U.K., as per Cancer Research UK. Therefore, the rising incidences of urethral stricture is expected to drive growth of the market.

In addition to increasing incidence of urethral stricture, the high success rate of the procedure is also expected to facilitate growth of the urethroplasty segment during the forecast period. For instance, according to the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) Limited, urethroplasty is the most preferred procedure for treatment of urethral strictures and has a success rate of over 85.0% compared to other procedures

Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market- Restraints

Urethral stricture treatment requires highly efficient & technologically advanced procedures. Technologically advanced procedures offer fast recovery with no down time and reduce recurrence. However, high cost of surgical procedures is likely to hamper growth of the market as individuals in lower middle income economies may not be able to afford the treatment. According to the Elsevier Inc. the cost of first treatment of Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU) is US$ 3,375.0 and the cost of second term treatment of DVIU is US$ 7,522.5, which is very expensive for patients in low and middle income countries.

Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market- Regional Analysis

Regional segmentation of the global urethral stricture treatment market comprises North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa.

Among regions, North America is estimated to exhibit significant growth in the urethral stricture treatment market, owing to presence of key players such as Becton, Dickinson and Company (Bard Medical), Cook Medical, and Teleflex Incorporated offering innovative ureteral stents. Moreover, increasing incidence and prevalence of urethral stricture in the region is expected to contribute to growth of the North America urethral stricture treatment market during the forecast period. The diagnosis rate of urethral strictures is expected to increase with age, prostatic hyperplasia, peripheral vascular disease, and hypogonadism. For instance, in 2018, according to reports published in the Journal of Urology, around 1% of men in the U.S. were diagnosed with urethral stricture.

Moreover, increasing demand for efficient and advanced techniques for treatment of urethral strictures in the region is expected to drive growth of the market during the forecast period. For instance, in July 2018, UroTiss Europe GmbH developed an innovative therapeutic option in tissue engineering called MukoCell, a graft for urethroplasty, which helps to replace and avoid complications associated with the native oral mucosa sections.

Furthermore, the Asia Pacific urethral stricture treatment market is expected to hold significant market share during the forecast period owing to increasing incidence of urethral strictures and increasing strategic collaborations between research institutes for development of novel treatments. In November 2018, researchers from Japan and India collaborated together for development of a new treatment method for male urethral stricture.

Figure 2: Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market Share (%), By Region, (2019 & 2027)

Urethral Stricture Treatment  | Coherent Market Insights

Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2019)

Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market- Competitive Landscape

Key players operating in the urethral stricture treatment market include Becton, Dickinson and Company, Amecath, Zhejiang Chuangxiang, Medical Technology Co., Ltd, Allium Ltd., SURGIMEDIK, Cook Group, Taewoong Medical Co., Ltd., Teleflex Incorporated, B. Braun Melsungen AG, Coloplast A/S, Boston Scientific Corporation, and Pnn Medical A/S.

Urethral stricture is characterized by the narrowing of the calibre of the urethra caused due a scarring resulting from infection or injury. There are two types of urethral strictures, posterior urethral stricture and anterior urethral stricture. Posterior urethral strictures occur due to fibrosis of the posterior urethra or distraction injuries which result from trauma or pelvic fractures. Anterior urethral stricture are the most commonly occurring strictures and are caused due to infection or trauma leading to spongiofibrosis. The condition can be treated with various treatment options such as urethral dilation, direct vision internal urethrotomy (dviu), urethroplasty, and other treatments.

Market Dynamics

Increasing prevalence of urological and kidney related disorders is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. According to a study published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in October 2018, an estimated 1-19% of the Indian population was suffering from urolithiasis. Moreover, product approvals by regulatory authorities are also expected to drive the market growth. For instance, in April 2018, Urotronic, Inc. received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for Optilume drug-coated balloon (DCB) catheter for treatment of male patients suffering from urethral strictures

Adoption of inorganic growth strategies such as acquisitions and collaborations is expected to facilitate the growth of the global urethral stricture treatment market. For instance, in September 2017, Teleflex Incorporated acquired NeoTract, Inc., a medical device company, which focuses on developing and marketing the UroLift System. It is a minimally invasive medical device used to treat lower urinary tract infection (LUTI).

Key features of the study:

  • This report provides in-depth analysis of the global urethral stricture treatment market, market size (US$ Mn), and compound annual growth rate (CAGR %) over the forecast period (2019-2027), considering 2018 as the base year
  • It elucidates potential revenue opportunities across different segments and explains attractive investment proposition matrices for this market
  • This study also provides key insights about market drivers, restraints, opportunities, new technology launches or approvals, market trends, regional outlook, and competitive strategies adopted by leading players
  • It profiles leading players in the global urethral stricture treatment market based on the following parameters – company overview, financial performance, technology portfolio, geographical presence, distribution strategies, key developments, and strategies
  • Key players covered as a part of this study include Becton, Dickinson and Company, Amecath, Zhejiang Chuangxiang, Medical Technology Co., Ltd, Allium Ltd., SURGIMEDIK, Cook Group, Taewoong Medical Co., Ltd., Teleflex Incorporated, B. Braun Melsungen AG, Coloplast A/S, Boston Scientific Corporation, and Pnn Medical A/S
  • Insights from this report would allow marketers and management authorities of companies to make informed decision with respect to future technology launches, government initiatives, technological upgradation, market expansion, and marketing tactics
  • The global urethral stricture treatment market report caters to various stakeholders in this market, including investors, technology manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers for global urethral stricture treatment market, research and consulting firms, new entrants, and financial analysts

Detailed Segmentation:

  • Global Urethral stricture treatment Market, By Type:
    • Posterior Urethral Stricture
    • Anterior Urethral Stricture
  • Global Urethral stricture treatment Market, By Treatment:
    • Urethral Dilation
    • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
    • Urethroplasty
      • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
      • Substitution Urethroplasty
    • Others
  • Global Urethral stricture treatment Market, By Disease Indication:
    • Iatrogenic
    • Idiopathic
    • Infection-induced
    • Trauma
    • Others
  • Global Urethral stricture treatment Market, By End User:
    • Hospitals
    • Ambulatory Surgical Center
    • Others
  • Global Urethral stricture treatment Market, By Region:
    • North America
      • By Type:
        • Posterior Urethral Stricture
        • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • By Treatment:
        • Urethral Dilation
        • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
        • Urethroplasty
          • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Substitution Urethroplasty
        • Others
      • By Disease Indication:
        • Iatrogenic
        • Idiopathic
        • Infection-induced
        • Trauma
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Hospitals
        • Ambulatory Surgical Center
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • U.S.
        • Canada
    • Europe
      • By Type:
        • Posterior Urethral Stricture
        • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • By Treatment:
        • Urethral Dilation
        • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
        • Urethroplasty
          • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Substitution Urethroplasty
        • Others
      • By Disease Indication:
        • Iatrogenic
        • Idiopathic
        • Infection-induced
        • Trauma
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Hospitals
        • Clinics
        • Ambulatory Surgical Center
      • By Country:
        • U.K.
        • Germany
        • Italy
        • Spain
        • France
        • Russia
        • Rest of Europe
    • Asia Pacific
      • By Type:
        • Posterior Urethral Stricture
        • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • By Treatment:
        • Urethral Dilation
        • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
        • Urethroplasty
          • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Substitution Urethroplasty
        • Others
      • By Disease Indication:
        • Iatrogenic
        • Idiopathic
        • Infection-induced
        • Trauma
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Hospitals
        • Ambulatory Surgical Center
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • Australia
        • India
        • China
        • Japan
        • ASEAN
        • South Korea
        • Rest of Asia Pacific
    • Latin America
      • By Type:
        • Posterior Urethral Stricture
        • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • By Treatment:
        • Urethral Dilation
        • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
        • Urethroplasty
          • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Substitution Urethroplasty
        • Others
      • By Disease Indication:
        • Iatrogenic
        • Idiopathic
        • Infection-induced
        • Trauma
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Hospitals
        • Ambulatory Surgical Center
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • Brazil
        • Mexico
        • Argentina
        • Rest of Latin America
    • Middle East
      • By Type:
        • Posterior Urethral Stricture
        • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • By Treatment:
        • Urethral Dilation
        • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
        • Urethroplasty
          • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Substitution Urethroplasty
        • Others
      • By Disease Indication:
        • Iatrogenic
        • Idiopathic
        • Infection-induced
        • Trauma
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Hospitals
        • Ambulatory Surgical Center
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • GCC
        • Israel
        • Rest of Middle East
    • Africa
      • By Type:
        • Posterior Urethral Stricture
        • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • By Treatment:
        • Urethral Dilation
        • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
        • Urethroplasty
          • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Substitution Urethroplasty
        • Others
      • By Disease Indication:
        • Iatrogenic
        • Idiopathic
        • Infection-induced
        • Trauma
        • Others
      • By End User:
        • Hospitals
        • Ambulatory Surgical Center
        • Others
      • By Country/Region:
        • South Africa
        • Central Africa
        • North Africa
  • Company Profiles
      • Becton, Dickinson and Company *
        • Company Overviews
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • ]Amecath
      • Zhejiang Chuangxiang
      • Medical Technology Co., Ltd
      • Allium Ltd.
      • SURGIMEDIK
      • Cook Group
      • Taewoong Medical Co., Ltd.
      • Teleflex Incorporated
      • B. Braun Melsungen AG
      • Coloplast A/S, Boston Scientific Corporation
      • Pnn Medical A/S

 “*” marked represents similar segmentation in other categories in the respective section.

Table of Contents

  1. Research Objectives and Assumptions
    • Research Objectives
    • Assumptions
    • Abbreviations
  2. Market Overview
    • Report Description
      • Market Definition and Scope
    • Executive Summary
      • Market Snippet, By Type
      • Market Snippet, By Treatment
      • Market Snippet, By Disease Indication
      • Market Snippet, By End User
      • Market Snippet, By Region
    • Coherent Opportunity Map (COM)
  3. Market Dynamics, Regulations, and Trends Analysis
    • Market Dynamics
      • Drivers
      • Restraints
      • Market Opportunities
    • Impact Analysis
    • Market Trends
    • Key Developments
    • Technology Advancements
    • Merger and Acquisition
    • Regulatory Scenario
    • PORTER’S Five Forces
    • PEST Analysis
  4. Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2018 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Posterior Urethral Stricture
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Anterior Urethral Stricture
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  5. Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2018 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Urethral Dilation
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Urethroplasty
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • Anastomotic Urethroplasty
          • Introduction
          • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • Substitution Urethroplasty
          • Introduction
          • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  6. Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2018 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Iatrogenic
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Idiopathic
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Infection-induced
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Trauma
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  7. Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2018 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, 2017 – 2027
      • Segment Trends
    • Hospitals
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Ambulatory Surgical Centers
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, and Y-o-Y Growth, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
  8. Global Urethral Stricture Treatment Market, By Region, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, By Region, 2018 and 2027 (%)
      • Y-o-Y Growth Analysis, By Region, 2016 – 2027
      • Regional Trends
    • North America
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • U.S.
        • Canada
    • Europe
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • U.K.
        • Germany
        • Italy
        • France
        • Spain
        • Russia
        • Rest of Europe
    • Asia Pacific
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • China
        • Japan
        • India
        • ASEAN
        • Australia
        • South Korea
        • Rest of Asia Pacific
    • Latin America
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • Brazil
        • Mexico
        • Argentina
        • Rest of Latin America
    • Middle East
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • GCC
        • Israel
        • Rest of Middle East
    • Africa
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Type, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Treatment, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Disease Indication, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By End User, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Country/Region, 2016 – 2027, (US$ Million)
        • North Africa
        • Central Africa
        • South Africa
  9. Competitive Landscape
    • Heat Map Analysis
    • Company Profiles
      • Becton, Dickinson and Company
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Amecath
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Zhejiang Chuangxiang Medical Technology Co., Ltd
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Allium Ltd.
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • SURGIMEDIK
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Cook Group
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Taewoong Medical Co., Ltd.
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Teleflex Incorporated
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • B. Braun Melsungen AG
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Coloplast A/S
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Boston Scientific Corporation
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
      • Pnn Medical A/S
        • Company Overview
        • Technology Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Recent Highlights
        • Strategies
    • Analyst Views
  10. Section
    • References
    • Research Methodology
    • About us and Sales Contact

*Browse 45 market data tables and 37 figures on "Urethral Stricture Treatment Market” - Global forecast to 2027

Research Methodology

Coherent Market Insights followsa comprehensive research methodology focused on providing the most precise market analysis. The company leverages a data triangulation model which helps company to gauge the market dynamics and provide accurate estimates. Key components of the research methodologies followed for all our market reports include:

  • Primary Research (Trade Surveys and Experts Interviews)
  • Desk Research
  • Proprietor Data Analytics Model

In addition to this, Coherent Market Insights has access to a wide range of the regional and global reputed paid data bases, which helps the company to figure out the regional and global market trends and dynamics. The company analyses the industry from the 360 Degree Perspective i.e. from the Supply Side and Demand Side which enables us to provide granular details of the entire ecosystem for each study. Finally, a Top-Down approach and Bottom-Up approach is followed to arrive at ultimate research findings.


Data Triangulation Methodology | Coherent Market Insights

Coherent Market Insights desk research is based on a principle set of research techniques:

  • National level desk research: It Includes research analysis of regional players, regional regulatory bodies, regional trade associations, and regional organization.
  • Multinational level desk research: The research team keeps a track of multinational players, global regulatory bodies, global trade associations, and global organization.

Coherent Market Insights has a large amount of in-house repository of industry database. This is leveraged as a burner for initiating a new research study. Key secondary sources include:

  • Governmental bodies, National and international social welfare institutions, and organizations creating economic policies among others.
  • Trade association, National and international media and trade press.
  • Company Annual reports, SEC filings, Corporate Presentations, press release, news, and specification sheet of manufacturers, system integrators, brick and mortar - distributors and retailers, and third party online commerce players.
  • Scientific journals, and other technical magazines and whitepapers.

Market Analysis | Coherent Market Insights

Preliminary Data Mining

The raw data is obtained through the secondary findings, in house repositories, and trade surveys. It is then filtered to ensure that the relevant information including industry dynamics, trends, and outlook is retained for further research process.

Data Standardization

Holistic approach is used to ensure that the granular and uncommon parameters are taken into consideration to ensure accurate results. The information from the paid databases are further combined to the raw data in order to standardize it.

Coherent Statistical model

We arrive at our final research findings through simulation models. Coherent Data Analytics Model is a statistical tool that helps company to forecast market estimates. Few of the parameters considered as a part of the statistical model include:

  • Micro-economic indicators
  • Macro-economic indicators
  • Environmental indicators
  • Socio-political indicators
  • Technology indicators

Data Processing

Once the findings are derived from the statistical model, large volume of data is process to confirm accurate research results. Data analytics and processing tools are adopted to process large chunk of collected informative data. In case, a client customizes the study during the process, the research finding till then are benchmarked, and the process for new research requirement is initiated again.

Data Validation

This is the most crucial stage of the research process. Primary Interviews are conducted to validate the data and analysis. This helps in achieving the following purposes:

  • It provides first-hand information on the market dynamics, outlook, and growth parameters.
  • Industry experts validates the estimates which helps the company to cement the on-going research study.
  • Primary research includes online surveys, face-to face interviews, and telephonic interviews.

The primary research is conducted with the ecosystem players including, but not limited to:

  • Raw Material Suppliers
  • Manufacturers
  • System Integrators
  • Distributors
  • End-users