Childhood Absence Epilepsy Treatment Market - Insights
Absence seizures (previously known as petit-mal) are commonly found in children than in adults with frequent occurrence. The seizures of childhood absence epilepsy often starts between the ages of 4 to 7 years. It rarely starts before 4 years of age and late as 8 years of age. Seizures can occur many times a day ranging from 10 to 100 times a day, known as pyknolepsy. Seizures are divided into typical and atypical absence seizures depending on the nature of the seizures. As symptoms of some other medical conditions are similar to epilepsy, diagnosing epilepsy proves to be difficult. Some protocols should be followed by the patient such as maintaining a diary of seizure occurrence dates, time, and detailed description for easier diagnosis. Seizures should be diagnosed and classified by seizure type and syndrome. Ethosuximide is generally the first choice of treatment for childhood absence epilepsy Ethosuximide is very effective in typical absence seizures. Although Ethosuximide and Valproate are found to be similarly effective, Ethosuximide is better accepted by patients. Atypical absence seizures have been found to respond well to Valproic acid. Lamotrigine is considered after both the drugs Ethosuximide and Valproate, as lamotrigine is found to have low efficacy than the other drugs.
High prevalence of epilepsy and seizures among children is expected to drive global childhood absence epilepsy treatment market growth over the forecast period
Epilepsy is a highly prevalent disorder, especially in emerging economies. The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in children appears to be lower in developed economies and highest in rural areas of underdeveloped economies. For instance, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), February 2018, around 80% of the people suffering from epilepsy live in low– and middle- income countries. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics in April 2017, epilepsy affects 0.5% to 1% of children, globally and is the most frequent chronic neurologic condition observed in childhood. Only around one-third of children with epilepsy can be assigned to a specific epilepsy type, as defined by the recently proposed system for classification of epilepsy syndrome (ILAE Classification of epilepsies). According to the Society of Neuroscience in 2015, epilepsy affects an estimated 10.5 million children worldwide, and the types and severity of the disorder vary significantly. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2013, around 10% of seizures in children with epilepsy are typical absence seizures.
The global childhood absence epilepsy treatment market was valued at US$ 158.2 million in 2017 and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 5.4% over the forecast period (2018 – 2026).
Figure 1: Global Childhood Absence Epilepsy Treatment Market Share, By Disease Type (%), 2018 - 2026
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2017)
Increasing focus of market players to target the unmet needs of absence epilepsy patients is expected to boost childhood absence epilepsy treatment market growth over the forecast period
Childhood absence epilepsy starts between the ages of 4 to 7 years, rarely the seizures may start under 4 years of age and late as 8 years of age. Manufacturers are engaged in research and development of new drugs for the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy. Furthermore, pipeline of therapeutics for other forms of pediatric epilepsy is strong and epilepsy medications are majorly effective for the treatment of more than one type of seizure. Presence of strong pipeline for overall pediatric epilepsy may result in growth in global childhood absence epilepsy treatment market size. Some of the market players involved in the research and development of drugs for childhood absence epilepsy include INSYS Therapeutics Inc. and Cavion, Inc. The market entry strategy for pipeline drugs is based on initially seeking approval for multiple indications including childhood absence epilepsy. Insys Therapeutics has Cannabidiol oral solution for the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy and various other indications in phase 2 of clinical trials (estimated study completion date is November 2019). Cavion, Inc. has CX-8998 for the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy in phase 2 clinical trials (estimated study completion date is November 25, 2018).
However, side effects associated with these medications are expected to restrain global childhood absence epilepsy treatment market growth to a certain extent. The anti-epileptic drugs show mild neurological adverse effects and at times, it can be fatal. The adverse reactions and risks vary with each medication. Majority of the anti-epileptic drugs have the potential to cause an allergic reaction.
Some of the major players operating in the global childhood absence epilepsy treatment market include Cavion, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Insys Therapeutics, Inc., AbbVie, Inc., and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Childhood absence epilepsy diagnosis revolves around identifying symptoms and categorizing the epilepsy type based on those symptoms. Diagnostic methods and techniques for childhood absence epilepsy include electroencephalogram (EEG)/video telemetry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans), and blood tests. In electroencephalogram (EEG)/video telemetry, electrical signals from brain are recorded in a computer by asking the patient to hyperventilate for 3 to 5 minutes, which triggers an absence seizure. The EEG then shows spikes and wave discharges at 3 Hz (cycles per second) that are generalized in nature (similar on both sides of the brain). Structural causes behind epilepsy can be understood with the help of MRI scans (as some patients suffering from epilepsy due to brain damage can be found by a MRI scan). Blood tests may be required to diagnose any medical conditions, which may be the reason behind epilepsy.
Key players in the market are focused on the development of new drugs for the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy. Factors such as increasing prevalence of the disease, increasing accessibility of medications, and presence of drugs in pipeline for childhood absence epilepsy treatment (Insys therapeutics and Cavion, Inc.) are expected to boost the global childhood absence epilepsy treatment market growth. Product launches by generic manufacturers in the U.S. as well as globally is expected to support growth of the market. For instance, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories launched generic lamotrigine orally disintegrating tablets in the U.S. in 2016. Moreover, a number of manufacturers such as Insys Therapeutics (Cannabidiol) and Cavion, Inc. (CX-8998) have drugs in phase II stage in clinical trials and these therapies are expected to be launched over the forecast period.
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