Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is known for causing herpes infection. This is majorly found on genitals or mouth and can also be seen on various body parts. There are two types of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), in which HSV-1 is oral herpes causing sores around lips and mouth (fever blisters or cold sores), while HSV-2 is genital herpes, wherein sores are found around genitals and rectum. HSV-1 is very common and extremely contagious infection, and HSV-1 infections occurring around mouth are known as orolabial, oral-labial, or oral –facial herpes. A very few cases of genital herpes (infections occur in genital or anal area) are found in HSV-1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) is most common sexually transmitted virus causing genital herpes (GH) and also highly contagious infection. HSV-2 infection is long lasting and incurable. There is more risk for patients suffering from HSV-2 of getting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Probability of reoccurrence of HSV-1 is less frequent than that of HSV-2.
Global Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Vaccines Market Drivers
Factors such as extensive research and development is expected to support global herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market growth over the forecast period. Leading players in the market such as GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Sanofi SA, and others have HSV vaccines in the development phases. GSK’s vaccine SB208141 completed phase III studies in 2009, which started in 2003. GSK carried out several other clinical trial studies on the same vaccine, considering various different parameters and formulations (with or without monophosphoryl lipid adjuvant [MPL]). Sanofi Pasteur has vaccine HSV529 for HSV-2 is in phase I, whose clinical trial study started in 2015 and completed in 2018. Moreover, Vical, Inc. has VCL-HB01, whose phase I study started in September 2016, and completed in December 2018. Furthermore, Genocea Biosciences, Inc. vaccine GEN-003 is in phase II study where the study started in November 2015 and completed in May 2017. The company also carried out various trial studies with the same vaccine by using an adjuvant Matrix-M2 (It is human respiratory syncytial virus, derived from Quillaja saponins, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine). Therefore, robust pipeline is expected to propel global herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market growth over the forecast period.
According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2015 HSV-1 prevalence was 47.8% while HSV-2 was 11.9% in the U.S. According to the same source, linear increase in prevalence for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 in people aged within 14-19 is 27%, for population aged within 20–29 is 41%, and for the age ranging within 30–39 and 40–49 it is 54.1% and 59.7%, respectively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2017, around 3.7 billion people (67%) under age 50 years suffered from HSV-1 infection, and 417 million (11%) people aged 15-49 years suffered from HSV-2 infection, globally. This high rate of prevalence has created need for prevention and treatment of HSV, which is expected to support global herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market growth.
Global Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Vaccines Market Regional Analysis
Extensive research and development activities in North America are expected to propel herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market growth in the region during the forecast period. Several leading companies are focusing towards research and development of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines for prevention of it. For instance, GEN-003 of Genocea Biosciences, Inc. (based in the U.S.) has shown acceptable safety profile in phase III clinical trials in 2017, so it could be first upcoming vaccine available for HSV in the market boosting global herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market growth.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) regional infection prevalence estimates for HSV-1 among people range aged 0-49 years are 49% women and 39% men in U.S., 87% women and 87% men in Africa, 69% women and 61% men in Europe, and 74% women and 73% men in western pacific are found, while for HSV-2 are found to be highest in Africa (31.5%) than compared to the U.S. (14.4%). According to the same source, in many emerging economies, herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection is replacing chancroid and syphilis infections as a risk factor in development of genital ulcer diseases.
Global Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Vaccines Market Restraints
Though several companies are carrying out clinical trials for HSV vaccines, there is absence of a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine in the market. However, few trails have shown promising results for prevention and treatment of HSV in clinical trials. Animal studies have shown potential results in clinical trials, however, different pathophysiology of the disease in animals and humans makes it difficult to produce the same results in human trials. For instance, clinical studies in mice and guinea pigs have produced more positive results than compared to human trials, as human HSV infection is different from that of animal HSV infection. These factors have restrained global herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market growth.
Global Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Vaccines Market Key Players
Some of the major players operating in the global herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines market include Sanofi S.A., GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Genocea Biosciences, Inc., Vical, Inc., and others.
Global Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Vaccines market Taxonomy