Combination vaccine couples two or more vaccines into a single vaccine shot which allows the user to get only a few shots for a number of diseases. For instance, MMR vaccine provides protection against three diseases viz. measles, mumps, and rubella. In addition, MMRV vaccine couples MMR vaccine with chicken pox vaccine. The benefits of combination vaccine include reduced pain or discomfort, timely vaccination, reduced administration costs, and less hassle with fewer visits to the immunization center. Also, combination vaccines allow flexibility to switch between single antigen vaccine and combination vaccine provided that the minimum interval recommended for a particular vaccine is maintained. This helps in providing timely immunization to children with lapsed immunization schedule. For instance, if single antigen vaccines such as DTaP, rHepB-Hib-PCV13, and IPV are administered separately to a child during 2 month visit then combination vaccine Pediarix (DTaP- rHepB-IPV) and an additional shot of PCV13 & Hib need to be administered at the 4 month visit. Combination vaccines comprise of at least two antigens that are either in a ready to use form or need to be mixed prior administration. For instance, Pentacel vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur, a French multinational pharmaceutical company, to be used against diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae Type B is packaged into two separate vials- a lyophilized Hib vial and a liquid DTP-HepB-IPV vial which need to be reconstituted prior use.
Global Human Combination Vaccines market: Dynamics
The major drivers of the human combination vaccines market include increase in prevalence of infectious diseases and rise in paediatric population. Since infants do not have a fully developed immune system at early stages of life they are more vulnerable to many infectious diseases. For instance, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that approximately 3.1% children population in the age group 5-11 years was in fair or poor health in the U.S in 2018. This further leads to an increase in the demand for combination vaccines thus, driving the market. Also, an increase in antiviral drug resistance has shifted the market trend towards combination vaccines as these vaccines eliminate the problem of drug resistance. For instance, according to a review article published in Nature, a scientific journal in 2021, use of vaccines reduce the spread of antimicrobial drug resistance as they are used specifically for a given infectious antigen.
Moreover, rising interest of manufacturers in developing novel vaccines to target a wide range of diseases boost the growth potential of human combination vaccine market. For instance, in September 2020, Sanofi Pasteur, launched Tetraxim (DTaP-IPV) as the first full-dose DTaP booster vaccine for children that provides protection against four infectious diseases- Diptheria, Tetanus, Whooping cough, and Polio.
Also, various government initiatives and collaborations to create awareness about vaccination and provide free or easy access to vaccines drive the market growth of human combination vaccines. For instance, in December 2017, the Government of Bangladesh collaborated with WHO (World Health Organisation), Gavi the Vaccine Alliance and UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund) to launch a diphtheria vaccination campaign for children in the age group 6 weeks to 6 years. The Serum Institute of India made a donation of 300,000 pentavalent vaccine doses to the Government of Bangladesh for this vaccination campaign in 2017. In addition, many countries have rolled out immunization policies wherein they follow a fixed immunization schedule to immunize every new born against common infectious diseases such as hepatitis, diphtheria, polio, and tetanus which increase the demand for vaccines. For instance, in the U.S, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination schedule for children and adults based on previous epidemiological studies. According to National Conference of State Legislatures, the childhood vaccination rate for the year 2019 in the U.S. was approximately 95%.
Global Human Combination Vaccines Market: Restraints
Threat of bioterrorism and stringent regulatory policies for the approval of novel combination vaccine are the major restraints to the global human combination vaccine market. Bioterrorism refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, fungus, and virus to disrupt human life. Since these biological agents are unpredictable it is difficult to control them. Bioterrorism can easily spread through the route of vaccines hence, regulatory authorities scrutinise the vaccine development process to avoid any mishaps. For instance, the U.S Food and Administration authority has been directed by the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 to protect the public against bioweapons associated with vaccines, diagnostic tools, and drugs in the U.S. The U.S. FDA has set out a complex and multistep process for assessing the safety, efficiency, and immunogenicity of the vaccine before approval of licensure for a particular vaccine, followed by post-approval surveillance.
Some combinations of vaccines are associated with unfavourable side effects which hinder human combination vaccine market growth. For instance, in 2020, the Com-Cov study led by the University of Oxford, U.K revealed that when doses of AstraZeneca and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines were mixed a higher proportion of the users experienced side effects such as fever, fatigue, and headache.
Moreover, factors such as lack of awareness, poor healthcare infrastructure, and facilities in low and middle income countries such as India, Nigeria, Vietnam, and Brazil hinder the market growth of human combination vaccines. For instance, according to a survey by the World health Organisation in 2018, approximately 19.4 million paediatric population of the world was not vaccinated in recommended immunization schedule and amongst this 60% population was reported to be from low and middle income countries such as Pakistan, India, Indonesia, etc.
Global Human Combination Vaccines market: Product Insights
Inactivated vaccine segment is anticipated to grow over the forecast period due to its high adoption and acceptance as an efficient human combination vaccine. Also, stability of inactivated vaccine makes it the perfect candidate to be used for treatment of infectious diseases as it can be stored and transported easily in lyophilised form. For instance, according to Global Vaccine Market report by World Health Organization, in 2017 the global demand for D&T vaccine (Diptheria and Tetanus) was approximately 945 million doses wherein DTwP-HepB-Hib vaccine accounted for 33% of total D&T vaccine.
Global Human Combination Vaccines market: Regional Insights
A boost in R&D activities and increasing technological advancements propel the market growth of human combination vaccine in North America. For instance, in 2019 three licensed DTaP combinations were readily available in North America for providing immunity against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (acellular pertussis) in children. These combination vaccines include Infanrix manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, and Tripedia and Daptacel manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur. Also, booster combination vaccines Boostrix and Adacel are widely available for use in adults in North American region which drives the combination vaccine market growth in this region.
Additionally, the U.S government has been actively involved in vaccine awareness initiatives which is another factor that drives the growth of human combination vaccine. For instance, on 25th May 2021, the Baker-Polite Administration partnered up with the Museum of Science, Boston with an aim of increasing access to COVID-19 vaccines. The administration announced USD 4.7 million investment for its Vaccine Equity Initiative.
Human combination vaccine market in Europe region is expected to flourish over the forecast period due to rise in research and development activities for providing better alternatives to the existing vaccines. For instance, in 2017, the U.K replaced the existing 5-in-1 DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine with a better 6-in-1 combination vaccine which provides an additional immunity against hepatitis B.
Asia Pacific human combination vaccine market is anticipated to be the fastest growing due to rise in paediatric population and increasing prevalence of infectious diseases such as tetanus, whooping cough, polio, diphtheria, measles, chickenpox, and smallpox. For instance, according to Our World in Data report-2017, South Asia accounts for majority of new tetanus cases. In 2019, the World Health Organisation reported that in South East Asia around 52% deaths under the age of five happen during the neonatal period.
Global Human Combination Vaccines market: Competitive landscape
The major players covered in the global human combination vaccines market are Sanofi, Pfizer Inc., Cadila Healthcare Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline plc, CSL Ltd., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corp., DAIICHI SANKYO COMPANY, LIMITED, Merck & Co., Crunchbase Inc., Mass Biologics, Meiji Holdings Co. Ltd, Serum Institute of India Moderna, Astrazeneca, Influvac, Biological, PaxVax Corporation, Emergent BioSolutions Inc, CNBG, Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and NPS MedicineWise.
Global Human Combination Vaccines Market: Taxonomy
By Product Type
By Age Group
By Combination Type
By Distribution Channel