Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Market - Insights
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a part of immuno-oncology therapies, which involves use of patients’ immune system to fight against cancer. Immuno-oncology uses novel immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors that boost the immune system of patients. These therapies target the immune system of the body instead of the tumors and enable the immune system to recognize and target cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are immunotherapy products that block the proteins, which stop immune system from attacking the cancer cells. These drugs block certain checkpoint proteins such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1. Manufacturers are engaged in research and development of immune checkpoint inhibitors as standalone therapies as well as in combination with other immuno-oncology products. Immune checkpoint inhibitors work against a wide variety of cancer, which include non-small cell lung cancer, lymphoma, skin cancer, breast cancer, and others. Depending on the functioning of these therapies they are further classified into subtypes such as programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitors, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. Commercially available immune checkpoint inhibitors include Iplimumab, Nivolumab, Rituximab, Blinatumomab, Proleukin, Gardasil, and Kymriah.
Introduction of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors with less side effects is driving global immune checkpoint inhibitors market growth
Cancer treatment has become more refined with improved treatment success rate due to improved therapeutic outcomes. This has been possible due to better understanding of the disease pathophysiology, functioning of the tumor cells, and effective ways to tackle with the same. Immune checkpoint inhibitors exhibit lesser side effects as compared to conventional cancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and others. Manufactures are developing immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are tailored to attack or block particular targets. For instance, Iplimumab, a human monoclonal antibody, which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 is available. Furthermore, agents focusing on specific immune regulatory checkpoints programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 and 2 (PD-L1) such as Nivolumab, Atezolimumab, and Pembrolizumab are being used for cell lung cancer. Moreover, in April 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to immunotherapy product- TECENTRIQ (atezolizumab) for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC), who are not eligible for cisplatin chemotherapy, which is currently in the clinical phase 4.
The global immune checkpoint inhibitors market size was valued at US$ 10,543.8 million in 2017, and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 11.8% over the forecast period (2018 – 2026).
Figure No.1: Global Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Market Share (%), by Region, 2018 and 2026
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2017)
Active research and development by leading players as well as small innovative organizations are expected to boost growth of the immune checkpoint inhibitors market
Immune checkpoint inhibitor is gaining significant traction as an efficient therapy for cancer treatment worldwide owing to less side effects, and targeted therapeutic effect. Therefore, various pharmaceuticals, biotech companies, universities, and cancer centers are focusing on investing in this segment. According to the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) report, 2016, currently, over 130 biotech and 20 pharma companies are developing immuno-oncology therapies, thereby fueling immune checkpoint inhibitors market growth in the forecast period. Also, according to the New York-based, Cancer Research Institute (CRI), 2017, currently 2,004 immuno-oncology agents including 940 in clinical stage and 1,064 in preclinical stage are under development. Leading players are actively investing in research and development in oncology treatment through various collaborations and individual research studies, owing to benefits associated with immune-oncology therapies. Advent of innovative immune-oncology therapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, have supported growth of the market. For instance, in 2016, AbbVie and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center entered into a three-year agreement for focusing on immune system’s complete potential to fight against cancer.
Figure No.2: Global Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Market Size (US$ Mn) Analysis and Forecast and Y-o-Y Growth (%) (2018-2026)
Source: Coherent Market Insights Analysis (2017)
Table No.1: Atezolizumab (Tecentriq) Years of Approval and Indications
|Year of Approval||Atezolizumab (Tecentriq) Indication|
|2016||Specific Type of Metastatic Lung Cancer|
|2017||Initial Treatment for Certain People with Advanced Bladder Cancer|
|2018||Initial Treatment of Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer|
|2019||Combination With Abraxane Accelerated Approval for People With PD-L1-Positive, Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer|
Source: Company Annual Reports
However, high cost of immuno-oncology therapies, which is unaffordable to low and middle income population is restraining immune checkpoint inhibitors market growth. For instance, Keytruda (Pembrolizumab), a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of various types of cancer cost around US$ 2,250 for a vial of 50 mg.
Some of the major players operating in the immune checkpoint inhibitors market include Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Merck & Co., Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, AstraZeneca Plc., Novartis International AG, ImmunOs Therapeutics AG, Immutep Ltd., NewLink Genetics Corporation, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Pfizer, Inc.
Immune checkpoint inhibitor products come under biologic therapeutic products. Biologic manufacturers require similar kind of approvals such as drugs from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration prior to bringing the product into market. However, unlike drugs, biologics require Biologics License Applications (BLA) to be filed with the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). Initiatives undertaken by the governments include funding is expected to drive growth of the immune checkpoint inhibitors market. For instance, in 2017, National Institutes of Health partnered with 11 leading biopharmaceutical companies such as AbbVie and Amgen, Inc. to accelerate development of new immunotherapies.
Global Immune checkpoint inhibitors market is driven by factors such as increasing prevalence of cancer, active research and development by leading manufacturers through collaborations and individual research, and robust pipeline of immune checkpoint inhibitor combination therapies. According to World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases and the second-leading cause of death worldwide. According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2012, there were around 14.1 million new cases, around 8.8 million deaths, and around 32.6 million of people suffering from cancer worldwide. There are many immune checkpoint inhibitors combination therapies in the pipeline. Immune checkpoint inhibitors has proven clinical profile and increasing approvals to include more indication for existing drugs such as Nivolumab, which in turn is expected to boost global immune checkpoint inhibitors market growth over the forecast period.
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