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NK- Cells and its Transcription Regulation to Inhibit Metastasis

Jun, 2021

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It gave a promising insight on the activity of cancer metastasis inhibition however, the exact underlying mechanism of this inhibition is not known till now.

Human immune system is a highly decorated system with a number of specialized cells and other bioactive molecules like antibodies associated with it. Among the cells, one of the common is NK Cells or the Natural Killer Cells. These cells are an essential component of innate immune system, produced from lymphocyte progenitors. Along with controlling of different microbial infection and also tumor suppressing function, these cells also carry out regulatory activities for, T-Cells, Dendritic Cells, macrophages etc.

All of these immune-agents, are under the transcriptional control mechanism, several protein, signalling molecules regulate their function. A group of researcher of Institute for Biomedical Research, Shinshu University, lately found the involvement of specific mRNA (messenger RNA), in the functional as well as progression of the NK-Cells. They found, specific mRNA sequencing bind to the surface of this NK-Cells, rendering them enhanced migration across the nucleus along with increase in IFN- γ (gamma Interferon) production.

Although in recent times cancer treatment has improved a lot however, difficulties and uncertainties regarding cancer metastasis, remain prevalent. Metastasis is the property of migration of cancer cells from the source organ to other organ, via complex biochemical reactions. This phenomena of the cancer is actually making them very difficult to trace and under their function completely. A lot of researches has been done by the scientists, to understand the mechanism of the cancer cells, along with, several metastatic target organs.

Conducting a basic research in the context of immune cells, in a tumor transplanted mouse model, they found the involvement NK-Cells in tumor suppression, and thereby named those cells as Anti-Metastatic cells.

Furthermore elucidation of these Anti-Metastatic Cells, shows the presence of a particular mRNA sequence, and its uptake is attributed by a protein named as ZC3H12D protein. After the incorporation of the mRNA sequence, with the help of ZC3H12D protein, migration activity of the NK-Cells increases along with IFN-γ production resulting into metastatic tumor suppression. These results gave a promising insight on the activity of cancer metastasis inhibition however, the exact underlying mechanism of this inhibition is not known till now.

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