Recombinant DNA Technology Market – Power of Genetic Engineering in Improving Lives
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology is a novel technique which have led to the advances in a number of different fields such as drug development, agriculture and research. Recombinant DNA technology has introduced new classes of organism namely genetically modified organism (GMO) or living modified organism (LMO). It can develop genetically modified crops (BT cotton), cloned animals, bio pesticides, biofuel, and gene therapy successfully. rDNA technology has triggered the biopharmaceutical industries towards the development of various rDNA products such as CAR-T cell therapy and bispecific and monoclonal antibodies in turn favoring the growth of recombinant DNA technology market. Also, the gene editing system CRISPR holds a great potential for the development of vaccines and drugs, as they play a major role in stability and enhancement of immunity.
The global recombinant DNA technology market was valued at US$ 106.8 billion in 2017, and is expected to exhibit a robust CAGR of 7.9% over the forecast period (2017 – 2025).
Figure 1. Global Recombinant DNA Technology Market Value (US$ Bn), by Region, 2017
Increasing technological advancements facilitating the production of novel products is expected to drive growth of the market
The tremendous advancements combined with wide range of applications to treat life threatening human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and infectious diseases are expected to be the major factors augmenting the market growth. According to the Global Diabetes Community, 2017, an estimated 422 million adults are suffering from diabetes worldwide, where the number is expected to escalate to 642 million by 2040. Also, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes and another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to hyperglycemia or high blood glucose levels. Advancement in recombinant technologies have facilitated the development of long-acting therapeutic proteins for drug development as well as introduced gene therapy, which is a novel molecular medicine, thus supporting the growth of recombinant DNA technology market by creating a positive impact in the treatment of genetic diseases. Moreover, the novel gene editing tool- CRISPR, can be used to target destruction of abnormal genes in human cells and has provided scientists a powerful way to make precise changes to DNA of microbes, plants, mice, dogs and human cells.
Recombinant DNA technology has also introduced high yielding, insect and heat resistance crop varieties such as such as soyabean, cotton, rice, maize, which require limited the use of herbicide, thus lowering the cost of agriculture. rDNA technology was also applied to create vitamin A-enriched (golden) rice to curb the widely prevalent diseases such as Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), thus proving to be a breakthrough to fight against malnutrition. According to the Golden Rice Humanitarian Board, 2016, VAD has affected over 140 million pre-school children in 118 countries and more than seven million pregnant women. It is a leading cause of child blindness in emerging economies.
However, high cost and adverse effects associated with the gene therapies such as Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) or Neurological Toxicities are the factors restraining the market growth. According to the survey by CNBC LLC, January 2018, the initial treatment cost of for the two approved CAR-T cell therapies developed by Novartis AG and Gilead Sciences is around US$ 475,000 and US $ 373,000 per patient respectively.
Increasing R&D initiatives and rise in strategic collaborations among market players to accelerate the recombinant DNA technology market growth
The major manufacturers are involved in strategic collaborations with leading biopharmaceutical companies and research institutes for the development of novel therapeutics based on recombinant DNA technologies. Such strategic collaborations in market are expected to create conducive environment for growth of the global recombinant DNA technology market in the near future. For instance, in August, 2017, Sanofi Pasteur acquired Protein Sciences, with a strategy to add a promising product to its vaccine portfolio- Flublok (Influenza Vaccine), which is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved recombinant protein-based influenza vaccine. In 2014, Pfizer, Inc. and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) collaborated to advance drug discovery and development technologies through recombinant DNA technology to transform the treatment of various diseases.
Moreover, the research organizations are launching initiatives and providing research grants for the development of novel therapeutics, which is expected to propel growth of the recombinant DNA technology market over the forecast period. For instance, in March 2017, the University of Pennsylvania received US$ 16.3 million grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to develop a recombinant DNA technology-based HIV vaccine. In 2015, Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and Baylor Research Institute (BRI) collaborated to focus on accelerating early detection and treatments for patients by developing personalized vaccines for a wide range of conditions such as infectious disease, cardiovascular, diabetes, neurology, and metabolic diseases. Also, in 2015, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine launched a major initiative to guide new research involving human gene editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9, which could lead to the emergence of promising new treatments for disease.
Major players operating in the global recombinant DNA technology market are Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Biogen, Inc., Sanofi Pasteur, Merck & Co., Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Profacgen, Amgen, Inc., and Monsanto Company.
Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the transfer of desired characteristics which is useful to improve the existing systems by controlling expression of target genes. Recombinant DNA technology allows mass production of therapeutic proteins, which are characterized by high level of consistency and stability. The technology has multidisciplinary applications and potential to deal with important aspects of life, for instance, improving health, and enhancing food resources. The genetically modified plants have augmented resistance to viruses and insect attacks, enhanced product yield, and shown increased adaptability for better survival.
Rapid technological advancements in the field of genetic engineering to deliver highly efficient therapeutics for disease management and in the field of agriculture are major driving factors for growth of recombinant DNA technology market. For instance, Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression Systems offers a quick and efficient method to produce recombinant baculovirus and can express the desired genes in insect cells and provide high yields of recombinant protein that speeds up the cloning reaction as compared to the time-consuming restriction enzyme cloning, which takes 2–3 days. Also, in 2016, a BioAg Alliance was formed between Monsanto and Novozymes A/S, to improve crop harvests by using products containing naturally-occurring microbes to boost agricultural productivity and expand its product portfolio. However, the adoption of non-biologic therapeutics and higher complexity of the genetically engineered products such as stability of the cell lines, requirement of skilled professionals, and optimum temperature are the factors hindering the market growth.
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