Ebola virus disease (EVD) causes viral hemorrhagic fever. It is a life threatening disease, which is spread to humans from animals. Direct contact with body fluids of infected person is one of largest causes of spread of this infection. Symptoms of Ebola disease include high fever, vomiting, sore throat, diarrhea, headache and muscular pain, and in few cases, internal or external bleeding. Although, there is no cure for Ebola virus disease, symptomatic treatment such as maintaining electrolyte balance, imagining required oxygen level, and treating infectious condition might help in improving patient’s health. Most of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease are under different developmental stage.
Increasing number of Ebola cases in affected regions and new vaccine development for this are expected to be factors driving growth of the market
Increasing mortality rates due to Ebola is expected to be a major factor for growth of the market. According to World Health Organization, in January 2018, around 50% people infected with EVD, have died. African countries such as Siberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, and Mali, Nigeria were affected with EVD. In 2014–16, outbreak in West African countries such as Siberia, Leone, and Guinea, lead to deaths of around 11,300 individuals. Some cases were observed during 2014–16 outbreak in the U.S., Spain, Italy, the U.K. among people that travelled to affected African countries and people who came in contact with infected patients. In May 2017, WHO declared outbreak of EVD in Democratic Republic of Congo. There is still fear about potential outbreak of EVC in vulnerable regions of Western Africa which earlier faced EVD outbreak due to gaps in public health infrastructure.Various institutes and pharmaceutical companies are focusing on developing vaccines against EVD.
According to study published in the journal, The Lancet, in December 2016, rVSV-ZEBOV also known as V920 vaccine, which is jointly developed by Newlink Genetics and Merck and Company, was found to be effective in protection against EVD in phase three trial. rVSV-ZEBOV uses strain of Zaire Ebola virus. Merck is planning to file for final marketing approval of its EVD vaccine with the U.S. FDA in 2018. Moreover, it produced 3,00,000 vaccines, in case of fresh outbreak in vulnerable regions. Various key players are focusing on developing vaccines for EVD, in order to expand its market share. For instance, GlaxoSmithKline developed CAd3-ZEBOV vaccine, derived from chimpanzee adenovirus and was tested by National Institute of Allergic and Infectious Disease, which started its phase three trials in February 2016. Janssen Pharmaceutical’s Ad26-ZEBOV is an experimental vaccine under development and currently in phase one. In 2014, Novavax Inc. developed Ebola vaccine by using its proprietary recombinant technology.
Ebola Vaccine Market Taxonomy:
On the basis of virus strain, the global Ebola vaccine market is segmented into:
- Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus
- Chimpanzee Adeno virus type 3-Zaire Ebola virus
- Adeno virus serotype 26- Zaire Ebola Virus
In January 2018, GeoVax Labs Inc., published results tested in non-hamate primates for its experimental vaccine, GEO-EM01 against EVD. It is based on company’s novel Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus like Particle (VLP) platform, which produces non-infectious VLPs in body of vaccinated individual. These VLP’S mimics the natural infection, which triggers the body to produce immune response with both antibodies and T cells.
GAVI is an international organization (global Vaccine Alliance) paid US$ 5 million to Merck & Company in 2016 for procurement of the vaccine (V 920 vaccine). Key players in the global Ebola vaccine market are Merck and Company, Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, GlaxoSmithKline, and Novavax Inc.