Immuno-stimulators are chemical compounds that can be drugs or nutrient substitutes that induce resistance in the human body by encouraging stimulation or increasing activity of any of its mechanisms. Immune-stimulants are broadly classified into specific immune-stimulants and non-specific immune stimulants. Specific immune-stimulants deliver antigenic specificity in immune response, while non-specific immune-stimulants act without considering the antigenic specificity. Immune check activators are induced to enhance the activity of an immune systems over the antigen. There are no specific approved immune check activators available in the market, with over 20 molecules under clinical trials.
Cancer immunotherapy specifically target the immune system, in order to trigger a response to destroy tumors cells. Various diverse approaches are in use and few are undergoing research and trials. Randomized controlled trials in various cancers result in exceptional survival rate and decrease in reoccurrence. Efficacy is further improved by 20–30%, when a cell-based immunotherapy is used in conjunction with conservative treatment approaches. The cells destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen when G-CSF lymphocytes are extracted from the blood and growing in-vitro in contradiction to a tumor antigen.
Immune check activators market mainly in pre-clinical trial stage, with rampant growth projected post-commercialization
Inovio Pharmaceuticals—a major player in the industry—has three different DNA immune activators in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Inovio’s DNA-based IL-12 immune activator enhanced antigen-specific T cell immune responses from its HIV DNA vaccine, PENNVAX.
Inovio, testing DNA IL-28B in combination with its multi-antigen hepatitis C DNA immunotherapy, INO-8000, is in phase I study in HCV patients.
Inovio’s DNA-based IL-33 immune activator, in combination with a DNA immunotherapy targeting HPV-16, led to rapid and complete tumor regression in mice. The approval and launch of these products would position the global immune check activators market on high growth trajectory.
GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals and Genentech are much focused on investment for research and development in immune activation methodology
Regional segmentation of the immune check activators market by Coherent Market Insights comprises North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East, and Africa. North America accounts for the largest share in the global market, mainly due to presence of major players and adoption of advanced research technologies in countries such as the U.S. and Canada. Increase in cancer prevalence globally is the prominent factor projected to boost growth of the market of immune check activators during the forecast period (2016–2024). Increase in government support and funding towards clinical trials on development of new drugs for cancer therapy also inspires the investigators in developing novel drugs. For instance, as of 2012 U.S. Department of Human Health and Services and National Cancer Institute raised funds of around US$ 5.1 billion to develop cancer drugs
Large number of clinical trial molecules in pipeline to boost growth of Immune check activators market
Key players operating the Immune check activators market include Genentech, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Checkpoint Therapeutics, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Hoffmann-La Roche, ImmuNext, Celldex Therapeutics, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Genmab, Eutilex Co. Ltd, and Enumeral among others. Major companies in the market are constantly working on research and development, this is a highly lucrative and largely untapped market. For instance, there over 20 pipeline drugs worldwide that are used to activate the immune response over antigens. Inovio states that it will focus on expanding its research and development and clinical trials of its pipeline portfolio of immune activators to further describe its competences and enhance the immune responses obtained by its numerous DNA vaccine and immunotherapy products. The launch of these molecules that offer a new ray of hope for treatment of this deadly disease will significantly propel growth of the immune check activators industry.
Research and development activities related to immune check activators is expected to boost the market growth. For instance, in April 2019, researchers from Medical University of Lublin assessed the factors that impact the efficiency of immunotherapy with anti-PD-L1 antibodies in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The team suggested that additional markers are needed to more accurately determine the patients that will benefit from immunotherapy treatment.
In July 2019, researchers from Medical College of Wisconsin conducted a study to identify the roles of Activator Protein (AP)-1 in the regulation of anti-tumor immune responses. The team found that AP-1 components transcriptionally induced the expression of genes encoding for co-inhibitory immune checkpoints (PD-1, PD-L1) via binding on the enhancer regions of the respective gene promoter.
In August 2019, researchers from University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté highlighted the ambivalent effects of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on the antitumoral immune response.
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