Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5) is a chemical compound, which is used as a chlorinating reagent. It is a water-sensitive, moisture-sensitive, pale yellow, and colorless solid having melting point of 148°C. It is hydrolyzed with water to form phosphorus oxychloride, phosphonic acid, and hydrochloric acid. Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a starting material for the synthesis of variegation of organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds used as phosphite antioxidants, pesticides, flame retardants, paint additives, lube oil, plasticizers and stabilizers for plastic and elastomers, and water treatment chemicals.
Phosphorus pentachloride is hazardous in case of skin contact, inhalation, ingestion and eye contact. The tissue damage amount depends on the length of contact. For instance, skin contact can produce blistering and inflammation while, eye contact can cause blindness or corneal damage. Severe over-exposure can result choking, unconsciousness, lung damage or death. Several government organizations have stated the limit of exposure of phosphorus pentachloride.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): The legal airborne permissible limit of exposure is 1 mg/m3 for an average of 8 hour work shift.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): The recommended airborne exposure limit is 1 mg/m3 for an average of 10 hour work shift.
Association Advancing Occupational and Environmental Health (AGGIH): The recommended airborne exposure limit is 0.85 mg/m3 for an average of 8 hour work shift.
Phosphorus pentachloride is mainly used as a chlorinating agent for manufacturing of dyes and pharmaceuticals. According to India International Trade Centre, more than 40% of the total production of dyes and dye intermediates in the world is catered by Chinese units.
The rapidly developing chemical industry is one of the major drivers for growth of the phosphorus pentachloride worldwide. Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a dehydrating agent and it is also used to produce stabilizers and plasticizers for elastomers and plastics, to improve the grain structure in metal casting.
However, the adverse effects caused by phosphorus pentachloride, as it reacts with water forming phosphoric and hydrochloride acid and producing heat for igniting combustible materials is one of the key restraining factors hindering the growth of phosphorus pentachloride market, globally. According to National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), phosphorus pentachloride is dangerous and cause severe skin burns and is an explosive gas.
Phosphorus Pentachloride Market Outlook
Key players operating in the global phosphorus pentachloride market include Xuzhou JianPing Chemical Co., Ltd., Tongshan Hongda Fine Chemical, Jiangxi Jixiang Pharmchemical Co., Ltd., Suzhou Hantech Chemical Co., Ltd, Shijiazhuang Zhonghao Chemical Co., Ltd., and United Phosphorus Limited among others.
Global Phosphorus Pentachloride market is segmented into:
By End-Use Industry