Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology is a simple yet powerful nucleic acid-targeting editing tool for genome. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. It has potential applications, which include correcting genetic defects, treating, and preventing the spread of diseases. The technology is faster, cheaper, and more accurate than previous techniques of editing DNA such as ZFNs (Zinc Finger Nucleases) and TALENs (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases). Researchers are focusing on its use in animal models or isolated human cells, with the aim to eventually use the technology for routinely treating diseases in humans.
Global CRISPR and CAS Gene Market - Impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to drive the growth of the global CRISPR and CAS gene market over the forecast period. As the number of COVID-19 cases have increased, the demand for efficient diagnostic tools have also increased and this encouraged the players operating in CRISPR and CAS gene market to develop diagnostic technologies for COVID-19 detection. Moreover, the regulatory authorities granted emergency use authorizations to the products developed by market players in order to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased product approvals helped market players in expanding their product offerings as a result of which the market players could strengthen their presence in the CRISPR and CAS gene market. For instance, in September 2020, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) granted approval for the commercial launch of FELUDA, a COVID-19 detection test developed by the TATA Group by using CRISPR technology.
Furthermore, market players started focusing on growth strategies such as collaborations and agreements in order to ramp up the production of diagnostic tools and meet the demand for COVID-19 diagnostics in the market. For instance, in May 2020, Mammoth Biosciences collaborated with GlaxoSmithKline Plc to develop an easy-to-use, accurate, rapid, and fully disposable test for COVID-19 detection by using Mammoth Biosciences CRISPR-based DETECTR platform. Also, in October 2020, Mammoth Biosciences signed agreements with MilliporeSigma (a Merck company) and Hamilton Company for the commercialization of CRISPR-based SARS CoV-2 test.
The global CRISPR and CAS gene market is estimated to be valued at US$ 830.7 Mn in 2020 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 22.8% over the forecast period (2020-2027).
Figure 1: Global CRISPR and CAS Gene Market Share (%) Analysis, By Product Type, 2020
Increasing number of clinical trials associated with CRISPR technology are being initiated by market players and research institutes to develop the treatment for diseases such as β-thalassemia, sickle cell disease, myeloma, solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, diabetes, and others, which is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period
Increasing research & development activities for CRISPR gene editing is expected to drive the growth of the market over the forecast period. For instance, in 2018, CRISPR Therapeutics and Vertex launched the first in-human clinical trial of CRISPR genome editing technology. The trial was conducted to test an experimental therapy for the blood disorder, β-thalassemia, in Regensburg, Germany. Moreover, according to the Congressional Research Service, a public policy research institute of the U.S. Congress, the number of CRISPR-related scientific publications increased from 87 in 2011 to 3,917 in 2018.
|Base Year:||2019||Market Size in 2020:||US$ 830.7 Mn|
|Historical Data for:||2017 to 2019||Forecast Period:||2020 to 2027|
|Forecast Period 2020 to 2027 CAGR:||22.8%||2027 Value Projection:||US$ 3,494.4 Mn|
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Merck KGaA (Sigma-Aldrich), OriGene Technologies, Inc., New England Biolabs, Cellecta, Inc., Agilent Technologies, Inc., Applied StemCell, Inc., Synthego, Genscript, Mirus Bio LLC, Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., and Mammoth Biosciences, Inc.
|Restraints & Challenges:||
Market players and government authorities are engaged in increasing investments and funding for gene editing technologies, which is expected to drive the growth of the market over the forecast period
Increasing investments and funding for gene editing technologies is expected to drive the growth of the market over the forecast period. For instance, the table below provides the details of funds raised by the companies, which are developing edited genes using the CRISPR technology:
|Company Name||Fund Raised (US$)||Year||Details|
|Editas Medicine||48.5 million||January 2018||The company received this fund after completing at-the-market offerings.|
|57.2 million||December 2017||The funds were raised in follow-on offerings.|
CRISPR Therapeutics AG
|122.6 million||January 2018||The funds were raised in subsequent follow-on offerings|
|187.6 million||September 2018|
Global CRISPR and CAS Gene Market – Restraints
Global CRISPR and CAS gene market growth is expected to be hampered in the near future, owing to the increasing ethical and safety issues about CRISPR and CAS gene therapy for gene editing and creating genetically modified (GM) food or organism. The major ethical concern associated with CRISPR technology is modification of the human germline. The CRISPR technology is designed to alter the defected human gene in order to treat certain disorders. Many ethicists have raised the concern that using CRISPR technology will modify the natural DNA of humans, which is unethical. Moreover, in April 2015, the US National Institutes of Health issued a statement indicating that it will not fund any research that uses genome editing tools such as CRISPR in human embryos due to ethical issues.
Moreover. availability of alternatives is also expected to restrain the growth of the market over the forecast period. Market players are developing various alternate methods for CRISPR/Cas9 in order to achieve high specificity. For example, Cas-CLOVER is an alternative to CRISPR/Cas9 developed by Hera BioLabs, an innovative pre-clinical contract services, products & licensing company. Cas-CLOVER is a fusion protein that comprises a nuclease-inactivated Cas9 protein fused to the Clo51 endonuclease and requires both paired L and R gRNAs for on-site targeting. The requirement of two guide RNAs with activity dependent upon relatively strict spacer lengths results in a highly specific genome editing tool as compared to CRISPR.
Global CRISPR and CAS Gene Market – Regional Analysis
On the basis of region, the global CRISPR and CAS gene market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa.
North America is expected to hold a dominant position in the global CRISPR and CAS gene market, owing to the increasing strategic collaborations in the region. For instance, in February 2018, Kite Pharma, Inc.—a Gilead Sciences, Inc. company— collaborated with Sangamo Therapeutics Inc. for developing engineered cell therapies to treat cancer. As per the agreement, Kite Pharma, Inc. will use Sangamo Therapeutics zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) gene-editing technology for developing next-generation ex vivo cell therapies for treatment of cancer.
Furthermore, Europe is also estimated to witness significant growth in the CRISPR and CAS gene market, owing to the increasing development of novel technologies in the region. For instance, in 2017, Merck KGaA— Germany-based company—developed a new genome editing tool dubbed proxy-CRISPR which provides access to previously inaccessible microenvironments of the genome modification using chromatin modifications.
Figure 2: Global CRISPR and CAS Gene Market Value (US$ Mn), by Region, 2020
Global CRISPR and CAS Gene Market – Competitive Landscape
Major players operating in the global CRISPR and CAS gene market include Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Merck KGaA (Sigma-Aldrich), OriGene Technologies, Inc., New England Biolabs, Cellecta, Inc., Agilent Technologies, Inc., Applied StemCell, Inc., Synthego, Genscript, Mirus Bio LLC, Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., and Mammoth Biosciences, Inc.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 is a unique technology that enables the geneticists and medical researchers to edit parts of the genome by removing, adding or altering sections of the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) sequence. The CRISPR-Cas9 system consists of two key molecules that introduce a mutation into the DNA. The first component is an enzyme, which is called as Cas9. This acts as a pair of ‘molecular scissors’ that can cut the two strands of DNA at a specific location in the genome so that bits of DNA can then be added or removed. The second component is called guide RNA (gRNA). This consists of a small piece of pre-designed RNA sequence (about 20 bases long) located within a longer RNA scaffold. The scaffold part binds to DNA and the pre-designed sequence ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome. This makes sure that the Cas9 enzyme cuts at the right point in the genome.
Key players are developing various treatment options, such as CRISPR and CAS genes, for genetic diseases. For instance, in 2016, the U.S.-based company, Addgene, developed the KamiCas9, a version of CRISPR-Cas9 that includes a 'self-inactivating' KamiCas9 system for the editing of central nervous system (CNS) disease genes for the treatment of Huntington’s disease.
CRISPR technology is widely used to develop therapeutics for diseases such as diabetes, cancer, etc. Hence, the increasing prevalence of such diseases is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. According to The International Diabetes Federation, in 2019, approximately 463 million adults (20-79 years of age) were living with diabetes; by 2045, this will increase to 700 million worldwide. Moreover, one in five of the people who are above 65 years old have diabetes.
Furthermore, according to data findings by the World Health Organization (WHO), in February 2018, cancer was the second-leading cause of death globally, and around 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths were registered due to cancer. According to the same source, around 70% of deaths from cancer occurred in low and middle income countries, and around one in six deaths across the globe were caused by cancer.
Key features of the study:
“*” marked represents similar segmentation in other categories in the respective section.