Phages, formally known as bacteriophages, are viruses that solely kill and selectively target bacteria. They are one of the most common biological entities that can effectively fight and destroy multi-drug resistant bacteria. When all antibiotics fail to work against an infection, the phages are able to kill the bacteria causing infections, thus helping the medical professionals in saving a life. Bacteriophages are being considered as a new alternative to antibiotics. In this therapy, the viruses are used to inject their genetic material into bacteria and use their host machinery to multiply themselves. This phage therapy is used to treat or to prevent bacterial infections in patients’ body. Bacteriophage therapy also plays a significant role in research fields of molecular biology and biotechnology. These factors enhance the potential scope for drug discovery.
The global bacteriophage therapy market is estimated to be valued at US$ 1,148.6 million in 2020 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 3.7% over the forecast period (2020-2030).
Figure 1. Global Bacteriophage Therapy Market Share (%) in Terms of Value, By Region, 2020
Increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period
The recent past has witnessed an increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistance infection in patients. These antimicrobial-resistant infections are caused by bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others.
Increasing prevalence of such antimicrobial-resistant infections has led to the increase in healthcare expenditure for its treatment and also resulted in rising number of deaths. For instance, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2019, around 2 Mn people suffer from an antibiotic-resistant infection and at least 23,000 people die each year in the U.S.
According to World Health Organization, in 2016, around 490,000 people suffered globally from multi-drug resistant TB infection. This drug resistance leads to further complications in the treatment of patients with other infections such as malaria and HIV.
Moreover, according to the Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, in 2017, approximately 3.5% of new cases and 18% of previously treated cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were observed in India.
|Base Year:||2019||Market Size in 2019:||US$ 1,148.6 Mn|
|Historical Data for:||2016 to 2019||Forecast Period:||2020 to 2030|
|Forecast Period 2020 to 2030 CAGR:||3.7%||2030 Value Projection:||US$ 1,652.3 Mn|
Armata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eliava Biopreparations Ltd., Pherecydes Pharma, Intralytix, Inc., Phagelux, Inc., Nextbiotics, InnoPhage, Ltd, Locus Biosciences, Inc., TechnoPhage, Eligo Bioscience SA, Phagomed Biopharma GmbH., PhagePro, Inc., Adaptive Phage Therapeutics, Enbiotix, Inc., Intodeworld, Inc., BiomX Ltd., Phi Therapeutics, Fixed-phage Ltd., Micreos BV, ContraFect Corporation, and OPTIPHARM Co., Ltd.
|Restraints & Challenges:||
Figure 2. Global Bacteriophage Therapy Market Share (%), by Targeted Bacteria, 2020
Adoption of inorganic growth strategies by major key players.
Bacteriophage therapy market is expected to exhibit high growth in the near future, owing to presence of major market players. Market players are more focused on adoption of inorganic growth strategies such as collaborations and partnerships in order to strengthen their pipeline phage therapy candidates and also to enhance their research and development capabilities.
For instance, in January 2019, Locus Biosciences Inc. entered into an exclusive collaboration and license agreement with Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson) to develop, manufacture, and commercialize CRISPR-Cas3-enhanced bacteriophage (crPhage) products targeting two key bacterial pathogens for the treatment of respiratory tract infection, and other related infections. Under this agreement, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. received license for CRISPR-Cas3-enhanced bacteriophage product from Locus Biosciences Inc. For this, Locus will receive US$ 20 Mn as the initial payment, this is expected to reach US$ 798 Mn in the future commercialization and sales of the bacteriophage-based products.
Global Bacteriophage Therapy Market – Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to over 100 countries across the globe and the World Health Organization has declared it as a public health emergency. According to the World Health Organization’s report, the manifestation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has resulted in more than 174 million infected individuals worldwide as of June 6, 2021.
Furthermore, players operating in the global bacteriophage therapy market are facing major challenges on various fronts due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The major challenges include supply of raw materials for manufacturing drug formulations due to irregularities in transportation facility. Moreover, distributors of products are experiencing irregular demand for products from the retailers due to increasing patient population suffering from COVID-19 and other life-threatening disorders.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to clinical trial executions in the U.S., impacting key stakeholders across the industry. Investigative site capabilities experienced upheaval, driven by staff furloughs, social-distancing protocols, financial losses, and concerns over patient safety. Sponsors, CROs, and other organizations that support drug development shifted to remote-working environments. An estimated 80% of non-COVID-19 trials were stopped or interrupted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Global Bacteriophage Therapy Market Restraint
Majority of bacterial infections can be treated with antibacterial agents and can also be prevented by vaccinations. Moreover, increasing number of drugs are entering into the market for the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant infections. For instance, in August 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Pretomanid Tablets in combination with Bedaquiline and linezolid for the treatment of a specific type of highly treatment-resistant tuberculosis (TB) of the lungs. Thus, presence of alternative treatment for antimicrobial-resistant infections may hinder the bacteriophage therapy market growth over the forecast period.
Major players operating in the global bacteriophage therapy market include, Armata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eliava Biopreparations Ltd., Pherecydes Pharma, Intralytix, Inc., Phagelux, Inc., Nextbiotics, InnoPhage, Ltd, Locus Biosciences, Inc., TechnoPhage, Eligo Bioscience SA, Phagomed Biopharma GmbH., PhagePro, Inc., Adaptive Phage Therapeutics, Enbiotix, Inc., Intodeworld, Inc., BiomX Ltd., Phi Therapeutics, Fixed-phage Ltd., Micreos BV, ContraFect Corporation, and OPTIPHARM Co., Ltd.
Bacteriophage therapy has played a significant role in research fields of molecular biology and biotechnology since a long time. Phage-based treatment therapy is expected to emerge as a new treatment for managing persistent bacterial infections. These factors are widening the potential scope for drug discovery. Increasing prevalence of drug-resistant infections is also expected to drive demand for bacteriophage therapy to help in overcoming an infection outbreak. For instance, as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in February 2019, around 129 people from 32 U.S. states were infected with the outbreak of strain Salmonella Infantis infection. Moreover, the CDC had conducted an antibiotic resistance testing on Salmonella bacteria isolated from infected patients, which showed that the outbreak strain was resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Increasing research and development of products is expected to propel the market growth. For instance, in September 2019, Armata Pharamceutical Inc. developed a new synthetic phage candidate targeting pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa for treatment of serious respiratory infections, with an emphasis on cystic fibrosis patients.
Increasing incidences of antibiotic resistance, rising adoption of inorganic growth strategies by key players, and increasing launches and approval of novel products is expected to drive the growth of global bacteriophage therapy market over the forecast period.
For instance, in February 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to conduct the first U.S. clinical trial of an intravenously administered bacteriophage-based therapy. The application for the clinical study was submitted by physician-scientists at the University Of California San Diego School Of Medicine. Following the U.S. FDA approval, the company plans to initiate phase I/II clinical trial study to test AB-SA01, an experimental bacteriophage combination for the treatment of participants with ventricular assist devices (VADs) infected by resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).
Key features of the study:
“*” marked represents similar segmentation in other categories in the respective section.