close
Enquiry IconContact Us
Logo
offer

Impact Analysis of Covid-19

The complete version of the Report will include the impact of the COVID-19, and anticipated change on the future outlook of the industry, by taking into the account the political, economic, social, and technological parameters.

Digital forensics plays a vital role in enterprise applications in order to address numerous problems such as facilitating IT security and incident response to empower the human resource investigations and forensic analysis of digital devices. Digital forensics is a multifaceted process that helps business organizations to streamline and simplify their business tasks by detecting issues and increase litigation, investigations, and regulatory readiness. The digital forensics include number of steps and has impact on various stages of an investigation including Data Collection, Hosting, Review, Data Processing, Production, e-mail analytics, and Social networking & timeline analysis.

The global digital forensics market is expected to witness significant growth during the forecast period (2020–2027) due to the growing consumer goods & retail industries. Frauds could be a challenge for the consumer goods industry, with the potential to impact finances, brand value, and customer trust. Enterprises dealing with consumer goods tend to have various third-party touch points, which include transporters, vendors/suppliers, third party manufacturers or subcontractors, stockiest, packers, and other third party service providers. These third-party touch-points of consumer goods industry are responsible for the increasing risk of collusive frauds that are difficult to identify. According to CMI’s analysis, most of the survey respondents belonging to the consumer goods industry have experienced bribery, diversion of goods, and corruption over the past few years. To minimize these security issues, enterprises in consumer goods industry are implementing digital forensic tools to streamline their business processes. Furthermore, the e-commerce is emerging as a new distribution channel for the consumer goods industry. The supply chain have become a source of fraud such as counterfeiting. For instance, unauthorized and illegal online third-party sales channel may sell branded products at heavy discounted prices. Such branded products are usually obtained through leaks in the supply chain.

Lack of awareness among the small and medium enterprises is a major factor hindering growth of the digital forensics market. Since, these forensics tools are expensive and complex, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are reluctant to adopt, owing to budget constraints. Moreover, SMEs also lack skilled labor, which is another major factor hindering growth of the market. According to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Analysis, enterprises in the U.S. have widely embraced digital forensics technology; however, European enterprises especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have yet to tap the potential of this technology.

Global Digital Forensics Market - Impact of Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic

Globally, most of the countries are affected by COVID-19 and most of the countries have announced lockdown. Due to COVID-19 pandemic, the need for digital forensics has increased as businesses have suddenly shifted towards digital infrastructure with remote solutions. Instances of cyber-attacks targeted at valuable enterprise information have been increasing across sectors, including healthcare, manufacturing, banking, logistics, administration, and government organizations.

Additionally, due to the lockdown measures, the number of digital transactions have increased drastically, with governments advising people to make transactions using contactless payment methods to prevent the spread of COVID-19. But this trend has led to unethical hacking and other cybercrimes over the internet. Therefore, the need for digital forensics has increased due to COVID-19 pandemic, which will provide growth opportunities for the market players in coming years.

request-sample

Digital Forensics Market Report Coverage

Report Coverage Details
Base Year: 2019 Market Size in 2019: US$ 4,501.0 Mn
Historical Data for: 2017 to 2019 Forecast Period: 2020 to 2027
Forecast Period 2020 to 2027 CAGR: 10.8% 2027 Value Projection: US$ 9,453.0 Mn
Geographies covered:
  • North America: U.S. and Canada
  • Latin America: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America
  • Europe: Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, and Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific: China, India, Japan, Australia, South Korea, ASEAN, and Rest of Asia Pacific
  • Middle East and Africa: GCC Countries, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East and Africa
Segments covered:
  • By Forensic Type: Computer forensics, Network forensics, Mobile device forensics, and Cloud forensics
  • By Component: Hardware, Software, and Services
  • By Tools: Data Acquisition and Preservation, Forensics Data Analysis, Data Recovery, Review and Reporting, Forensic Decryption, and Others
  • By Vertical: Government and Defense, Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI), Telecom and IT, Retail, Healthcare, and Others
Companies covered:

AccessData Group, Inc., Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp., Oxygen Forensics, Paraben Corporation, Cellmark Forensic Services, Binary Intelligence, LLC, FireEye, Nuix Pty Ltd., IBM Corporation, LogRhythm, Inc., Magnet Forensics Inc., and Cisco Systems, Inc.

Growth Drivers:
  • Increasing Cyber-attacks on Enterprises
  • Increasing Adoption of Digital Forensic Techniques in the BFSI Sector
Restraints & Challenges:
  • Lack of Awareness of Digital Forensics Technology among SMES

North America held dominant position in the global digital forensics market in 2019

Statistics:

North America held dominant position in the global digital forensics market in 2019, accounting for 42% share in terms of value, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific.

Figure 1: Global Digital Forensics Market Share (%), By Region, 2019

Digital Forensics  | Coherent Market Insights

North America is expected to account for the largest market share during the forecast period, owing to the high presence of key players such as AccessData Group, Inc., Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp., Oxygen Forensics, Paraben Corporation, and Binary Intelligence, LLC. For instance, in November 2020, OpenText Corp, the U.S. based software development company, announced that OpenText EnCase Forensic and OpenText EnCase Endpoint Investigator will be available on the cloud with Microsoft  Azure. With OpenText Encase solutions in the cloud, law enforcement and corporate investigators can more easily collaborate, enhance evidence processing, investigate in cloud environments, and adjust more quickly to the needs of a remote workforce.

Asia Pacific is expected to exhibit significant growth during the forecast period, owing to the increasing use of cloud environment for data storage. Organizations operating in sectors such as banking, financial services and insurance (BFSI), retail, and government are shifting their workload to cloud for cost-savings, agility, and flexibility, which has increased organisations' susceptibility to cyber-attacks. Therefore, cloud forensics have gained much attention from forensics experts in Asia Pacific.

Computer forensics segment is expected to drive the market growth during the forecast period

Among forensic type, the computer forensics segment is expected to hold dominant position in the global digital forensics market during the forecast period. Increasing demand for computers for personal and professional use is driving demand for computer forensics. For instance, according to Coherent Market Insights’ analysis, computer forensics segment accounted for around 1.3 billion across the globe in 2019.

Figure 2: Global Digital Forensics Market Value (US$ Mn) Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2027

Digital Forensics  | Coherent Market Insights

The global digital forensics market was valued at US$ 4,501.0 Mn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ 9,453.0 Mn by 2027 at a CAGR of 10.8% between 2020 and 2027.

Major players operating in the global digital forensics market include AccessData Group, Inc., Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp., Oxygen Forensics, Paraben Corporation, Cellmark Forensic Services, Binary Intelligence, LLC, FireEye, Nuix Pty Ltd., IBM Corporation, LogRhythm, Inc., Magnet Forensics Inc., and Cisco Systems, Inc.

Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science that focuses on the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices related to cybercrime. Digital forensics is the scientific acquisition, analysis, and preservation of data contained in electronic media whose information can be used as evidence in a court of law. There are different types of digital forensics solutions that are used in enterprise application, which includes computer forensics, mobile devices forensics, network forensics, and cloud forensics. Digital forensics solutions help to improve visibility in the enterprise application, which enable them capability to rapidly address incidents, enact effective containment, and minimize technical issues.

Rapid advancement in the forensic technology is expected to drive growth of the digital forensics market. Companies offer several different features in digital forensic software including multi-case functionality such as tagging, searching, labelling, and bookmarking across multiple cases. Additionally, companies offer different specifications such as face and image detection, panels-driven interface, and customized interface. For instance, in September 2020, AccessData Group, a leading provider of integrated digital forensics and e-discovery software, announced the launch of V7.4, the latest version of the company’s digital forensics software solution that feature enhancements that make it possible for users to investigate all types of devices and data types regardless of what device they are stored on. For instance, in November 2017, AccessData Group announced the launch of its new versions suits of digital forensics solutions with new enhanced features that allows customers to gain greater control to their digital investigations.

Market Dynamics

The global digital forensics market is expected to grow significantly during the forecast period, owing to the growing focus on social media forensics. The advancement in Industry 4.0 and Web 2.0 technologies has significantly increased acceptance of social media platforms and it has become a primary source of socialization. Users actively share their information, create accounts, and engage in social interaction through these sites. Moreover, different social media applications such as LinkedIn, Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter have been exposed to multiple cyber threats and malware. Attacks on social media platforms can take place outside the system/network or within the network. Outside systems attack usually include DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) or (DoS Denial-of-Service), while attacks within the network include retrieving cookies data. The database of these social media applications is most vulnerable to such attacks. Considering this situation, digital investigators have shifted their interest towards social media forensics.

Among vertical, government and defense segment is expected to exhibit the highest growth during the forecast period. Government and defense vertical is the most susceptible segment to cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks in Government and defense sector are for political gains, terrorism, or for regional rivalry. For instance, according to Coherent Market Insights’ analysis, in 2015, the cyber-attacks in government and defense sector was around 7% of the global cyber-attacks in all sectors, which reached to 14% in 2017. Therefore, government agencies are more concerned about cyber security and data privacy. Thus, government and defense sector is adopting best-in-class digital forensics solutions and services, which is expected to aid in growth of the market.

Key features of the study:

  • This report provides in-depth analysis of global digital forensics market size (US$ Million) and compound annual growth rate (CAGR %) for the forecast period (2020– 2027), considering 2019 as the base year
  • It elucidates potential revenue opportunities across different segments and explains attractive investment proposition matrices for this market
  • This study also provides key insights about market drivers, restraints, opportunities, new product launches or approvals, regional outlook, and competitive strategies adopted by the leading  market players
  • It profiles leading players in the global digital forensics market based on the following parameters – company overview, financial performance, product portfolio, geographical presence, market capital, key developments, strategies, and future plans
  • Companies covered as a part of this study include AccessData Group, Inc., Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp., Oxygen Forensics, Paraben Corporation, Cellmark Forensic Services, Binary Intelligence, LLC, FireEye, Nuix Pty Ltd., IBM Corporation, LogRhythm, Inc., Magnet Forensics Inc., and Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • Insights from this report would allow marketers and management authorities of companies to make informed decisions regarding future product launches, product upgrades, market expansion, and marketing tactics
  • The global digital forensics market report caters to various stakeholders in this industry including investors, suppliers, managed service providers, third-party service providers, distributors, new entrants, and value-added resellers
  • Stakeholders would have ease in decision-making through various strategy matrices used in analyzing the global digital forensics market

Detailed Segmentation

  • Global Digital Forensics Market, By Forensic Type:
    • Computer Forensics
    • Network Forensics
    • Mobile Device Forensics
    • Cloud Forensics
  • Global Digital Forensics Market, By Component:
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Services
  • Global Digital Forensics Market, By Tools:
    • Data Acquisition and Preservation
    • Forensics Data Analysis
    • Data Recovery
    • Review and Reporting
    • Forensic Decryption
    • Others
  • Global Digital Forensics Market, By Vertical:
    • Government and Defense
    • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
    • Telecom and IT
    • Retail
    • Healthcare
    • Others
  • Global Digital Forensics Market, By Region:
    • North America
      • By Forensic Type:
        • Computer Forensics
        • Network Forensics
        • Mobile Device Forensics
        • Cloud Forensics
      • By Component:
        • Hardware
        • Software
        • Services
      • By Tools:
        • Data Acquisition and Preservation
        • Forensics Data Analysis
        • Data Recovery
        • Review and Reporting
        • Forensic Decryption
        • Others
      • By Vertical:
        • Government and Defense
        • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
        • Telecom and IT
        • Retail
        • Healthcare
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • U.S.
        • Canada
    • Asia Pacific
      • By Forensic Type:
        • Computer Forensics
        • Network Forensics
        • Mobile Device Forensics
        • Cloud Forensics
      • By Component:
        • Hardware
        • Software
        • Services
      • By Tools:
        • Data Acquisition and Preservation
        • Forensics Data Analysis
        • Data Recovery
        • Review and Reporting
        • Forensic Decryption
        • Others
      • By Vertical:
        • Government and Defense
        • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
        • Telecom and IT
        • Retail
        • Healthcare
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • China
        • India
        • Japan
        • Australia
        • South Korea
        • ASEAN
        • Rest of Asia Pacific
    • Europe
      • By Forensic Type:
        • Computer Forensics
        • Network Forensics
        • Mobile Device Forensics
        • Cloud Forensics
      • By Component:
        • Hardware
        • Software
        • Services
      • By Tools:
        • Data Acquisition and Preservation
        • Forensics Data Analysis
        • Data Recovery
        • Review and Reporting
        • Forensic Decryption
        • Others
      • By Vertical:
        • Government and Defense
        • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
        • Telecom and IT
        • Retail
        • Healthcare
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • Germany
        • Italy
        • U.K.
        • France
        • Russia
        • Rest of Europe
    • Latin America
      • By Forensic Type:
        • Computer Forensics
        • Network Forensics
        • Mobile Device Forensics
        • Cloud Forensics
      • By Component:
        • Hardware
        • Software
        • Services
      • By Tools:
        • Data Acquisition and Preservation
        • Forensics Data Analysis
        • Data Recovery
        • Review and Reporting
        • Forensic Decryption
        • Others
      • By Vertical:
        • Government and Defense
        • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
        • Telecom and IT
        • Retail
        • Healthcare
        • Others
      • By Country:
        • Brazil
        • Mexico
        • Argentina
        • Rest of Latin America
    • Middle East and Africa
      • By Forensic Type:
        • Computer Forensics
        • Network Forensics
        • Mobile Device Forensics
        • Cloud Forensics
      • By Component:
        • Hardware
        • Software
        • Services
      • By Tools:
        • Data Acquisition and Preservation
        • Forensics Data Analysis
        • Data Recovery
        • Review and Reporting
        • Forensic Decryption
        • Others
      • By Vertical:
        • Government and Defense
        • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
        • Telecom and IT
        • Retail
        • Healthcare
        • Others
      • By Country/Region:
        • GCC Countries
        • South Africa
        • Rest of Middle East and Africa
  • Company Profiles
    • AccessData Group, Inc.*
      • Company Overview
      • Product Portfolio
      • Financial Performance
      • Key Strategies
      • Recent Developments/ Updates
    • Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp.
    • Oxygen Forensics
    • Paraben Corporation
    • Cellmark Forensic Services
    • Binary Intelligence, LLC
    • FireEye
    • Nuix Pty Ltd
    • IBM Corporation
    • LogRhythm, Inc.
    • Magnet Forensics Inc.
    • Cisco Systems, Inc.

“*” marked represents similar segmentation in other categories in the respective section.

Table of Contents

  1. Research Objectives and Assumptions
    • Research Objectives
    • Assumptions
    • Abbreviations
  2. Market Purview
    • Report Description
      • Market Definition and Scope
    • Executive Summary
      • Market Snippet, By Forensic Type
      • Market Snippet, By Component
      • Market Snippet, By Tools
      • Market Snippet, By Verticals
      • Market Snippet, By Region
    • Coherent Opportunity Map (COM)
  3. Market Dynamics, Regulations, and Trends Analysis
    • Market Dynamics
      • Drivers
      • Restraints
      • Market Opportunities
    • Regulatory Scenario
    • Industry Trend
    • Merger and Acquisitions
    • New system Launch/Approvals
    • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic
  4. Global Digital Forensics Market, By Forensic Type, 2017-2027 (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2017 and 2027 (%)
      • Segment Trends
    • Computer forensics
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Network forensics
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Mobile device forensics
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Cloud forensics
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
  5. Global Digital Forensics Market, By Component, 2017-2027 (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2017 and 2027 (%)
      • Segment Trends
    • Hardware
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Software
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Services
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
  6. Global Digital Forensics Market, By Tools, 2017-2027 (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2017 and 2027 (%)
      • Segment Trends
    • Data Acquisition and Preservation
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Forensics Data Analysis
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Data Recovery
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Review and Reporting
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Forensic Decryption
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
  7. Global Digital Forensics Market, By Verticals, 2017-2027 (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, 2017 and 2027 (%)
      • Segment Trends
    • Government and Defense
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Telecom and IT
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Retail
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Healthcare
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
    • Others
      • Introduction
      • Market Size and Forecast, 2019–2027, (US$ Million)
  8. Global Digital Forensics Market, By Region, 2017-2027 (US$ Million)
    • Introduction
      • Market Share Analysis, By Region, 2017 and 2027 (%)
    • North America
      • Regional Trends
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Forensic Type, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Component, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Tools, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Verticals, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Share Analysis, By Country, 2019 and 2027 (%)
        • U.S.
        • Canada
    • Europe
      • Regional Trends
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Forensic Type, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Component, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Tools, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Verticals, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Share Analysis, By Country, 2019 and 2027 (%)
        • U.K.
        • Germany
        • France
        • Russia
        • Rest of Europe
    • Asia Pacific
      • Regional Trends
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Forensic Type, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Component, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Tools, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Verticals, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Share Analysis, By Country, 2019 and 2027 (%)
        • China
        • India
        • Japan
        • ASEAN
        • Australia
        • South Korea
        • Rest of Asia Pacific
    • Latin America
      • Regional Trends
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Forensic Type, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Component, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Tools, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Verticals, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Share Analysis, By Country, 2019 and 2027 (%)
        • Brazil
        • Argentina
        • Mexico
        • Rest of Latin America
    • Middle East and Africa
      • Regional Trends
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Forensic Type, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Component, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Tools, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Size and Forecast, By Verticals, 2019–2027 (US$ Million)
      • Market Share Analysis, By Country/Region, 2019 and 2027 (%)
        • South Africa
        • GCC Countries
        • Rest of the Middle East and Africa
  9. Competitive Landscape
    • Company Profiles
      • AccessData Group, Inc.
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp.
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Oxygen Forensics
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Paraben Corporation
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Cellmark Forensic Services
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Binary Intelligence, LLC
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • FireEye
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Nuix Pty Ltd
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • IBM Corporation
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • LogRhythm, Inc.
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Magnet Forensics Inc.
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
      • Cisco Systems, Inc.
        • Company Overview
        • Product Portfolio
        • Financial Performance
        • Key Strategies
        • Recent Developments/Updates
    • Analyst Views
  10. Section
    • References
    • Research Methodology
    • About us and Sales Contact

*Browse 60 market data tables and 40 figures on "Digital Forensics Market - Global forecast to 2027”.

FAQgrowicon

Frequently Asked Questions

The global digital forensics market is expected to reach US$ 9,453.0 million by 2027.
The market is expected to witness a CAGR of 10.8% during the forecast period (2020-2027).
Increasing adoption of digital forensic techniques in the BFSI sector is expected to boost the growth of the market.
The Government and Defense segment held the largest market share among industry verticals, contributing 29.7% in terms of value in 2019.
North America region held the largest share in the market in 2019, accounting for 42% share in terms of value.
Key players operating in the global digital forensics market include AccessData Group, Inc., Guidance Software, Inc./OpenText Corp., Oxygen Forensics, Paraben Corporation, Cellmark Forensic Services, Binary Intelligence, LLC, FireEye, Nuix Pty Ltd., IBM Corporation, LogRhythm, Inc., Magnet Forensics Inc., and Cisco Systems, Inc.
Existing Clientele

Joining thousands of companies around the world committed to making the Excellent Business Solutions.

View All Our Clients

Our Trusted Patner

Subscribe Newsletter

Kindly subscribe for our latest news & articles.