A DNA vaccine uses a gene from a virus or bacteria so as to stimulate the immune system. When the DNA vaccine is administered to a patient, the machinery in their cells makes a viral or bacterial protein which their immune system can recognise as being foreign to the body. Like any other vaccine the immune system will later on recognise the bacteria or virus preventing the illness in the future.
DNA vaccines are the third-generation vaccines. The DNA vaccine is a small, circular DNA plasmid that encodes one or more protein antigens under the control of a promoter so as to produce a specific immune response against the disease. They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. DNA vaccines have emerged as a safer alternative to standard live and inactivated vaccines for treating various human and animal viral diseases. They show several advantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity. They offer wide range of advantages for vaccination especially against emerging and re-emerging viruses, as the plasmids expressing a viral antigen can be easily and rapidly produced, which can be expressed in vivo and induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
Global Human DNA Vaccines Market: Dynamics
The inherent benefits of the human DNA vaccines over the other vaccines is the major factor contributing to driving the growth of the market. Inherent benefits of DNA vaccines, such as cost, efficiency, safety, reduced time for production, more stability especially when necessary to be transported, and the easy inclusion of immunostimulatory sequences contributes to drive the market growth.
Moreover, the positive results of the clinical trials owing to the advancement in biotechnology and research studies are imposing a positive outlook on the growth of market. For instance, in August 2021, India approved world’s first DNA COVID-19 Vaccine ‘ZyCoV-D’ by Zydus Cadila. The three-dose ZyCoV-D vaccine prevented symptomatic disease in 66% of those vaccinated, according to an interim study quoted by the vaccine maker Cadila Healthcare. The firm plans to make up to 120 million doses of India's second home-grown vaccine every year.
Furthermore, the increasing prevalence of infectious diseases such as cancer, hepatitis, and others besides the increasing number of resistant pathogens are some factors that will drive the global human DNA vaccines market growth.
Additionally, the spread of COVID 19 pandemic has caused an increase in the efforts to produce safer vaccines to treat the disease which will drive the DNA vaccine market growth. For instance, according to a report published by Medical Life Sciences, in February 2021, there were 250 vaccines in development to combat the coronavirus pandemic out of which 181 were in preclinical development, while 69 were undergoing clinical evaluation. Among the vaccines in clinical evaluation 10 vaccines were DNA vaccines. Furthermore, in August 2021, INOVIO an American biotechnology company has received authorization to conduct phase III efficacy trial of its COVID-19 DNA vaccine candidate, INO-4800 due to promising results of the initial trials. Composed of a precisely designed DNA plasmid, INO-4800 is injected intradermally followed by electroporation using a proprietary smart device delivering the DNA plasmid directly into the cells in the body and is intended to produce a well-tolerated immune response. INO-4800 is the only nucleic-acid based vaccine that is stable at room temperature for more than a year, at 37°C for more than a month, has a five-year projected shelf life at normal refrigeration temperature and does not need to be frozen during its transport or storage.
Global Human DNA Vaccines Market: Restraints
Increase in the unpredictability related to the stringent regulatory system for the approval of the product and less adoption of DNA vaccines in the developing countries are the major factors among others, which will hamper the market growth and will further challenge the growth of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccines market in the forecast period. However, the biggest limitation in the development of DNA vaccines is their intrinsic low immunogenicity.
Moreover, the risk associated with the gene therapy acts as a restraint for the market growth. Gene therapy has some potential risks such as unwanted immune system reaction, an infection caused by a virus, and targeting the wrong cell which can adversely affect the growth of the market and thereby act as a restraint.
Global Human DNA Vaccines Market: Regional Insights
Among regions, North America is expected to dominate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccines market during the forecast period, due to increase in the rapid development in immunology & molecular biology, rise in the cases of HIV, cancer, hepatitis and others. Moreover increase in government investment in DNA vaccines, and increase in the number of antibiotics resistant pathogens have created the need for effective and low-cost vaccination in this region. For instance, in March 2021, Biden Administration announced historic US$ 10 Billion investment to expand access to COVID-19 vaccines and build vaccine confidence in hardest-hit and highest-risk communities.
Global Human DNA Vaccines Market: Competitive landscape
The key players operating in the global human DNA vaccines market include GlaxoSmithKline plc, Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Bharat Biotech., Indian Immunologicals Limited, Merck & Co., Inc., GREEN CROSS CORP, Novartis AG, Sanofi, Zoetis, Aldevron, AnGes, Inc., Pfizer Inc., Immunomic Therapeutics, Inc., Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., General Electric, Ichor Medical Systems., VGXI, Inc., Biomay AG, Valneva SE, and GeoVax among other domestic and global players.
Global Human DNA Vaccines Market: Taxonomy
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