Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer affecting the bone marrow and blood. The condition is characterized by overproduction of immature white blood cells, also known as lymphoblast. The immature or abnormal cells are unable to function properly and build up around the healthy cells. Patients diagnosed with ALL are highly susceptible to recurrent infections, anemia, bleeding and bruising easily as the bone marrow is unable to form adequate numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The cancer is characterized with high progression rate, and can be fatal if not treated within few months. The cancerous cells have the potential to spread to other organs of the body including lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and the central nervous system. The common symptoms of the condition include renal failure, pneumonia, respiratory distress, and bone pain. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children, where timely treatment and diagnosis results in efficient cure of the condition.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified ALL based on three different sub-types according to the lymphocyte or white blood cell that has transformed into cancerous cell. The precursor B cell ALL, is found to be highly prevalent in adults, the mature B cell ALL, is identified by particular genetic changes, whereas precursor T cell ALL mostly affects young adults and is more common in men.
Increasing incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia coupled with rising association of the disease with genetic disorders such as Down syndrome in children is a major factor augmenting the market growth. According to the Healthline Media UK Ltd., 2017, ALL accounts for 80% of childhood leukemia and is the most common type of cancer and leukemia in children under 5 years of age than in adults, mostly affecting children aged 2 to 3 years. Also, according to survey by MedicineNet, a medical information portral, about two-thirds of acute leukemia diagnosed in children are associated with Down syndrome, thus increasing the likelihood of children affected with genetic disorders to develop ALL. Furthermore, factors such as high exposure to toxins- benzene and radiations such as X-rays before birth are expected to increase risk of developing ALL and this is expected to propel demand for treatment of the disease using various therapeutics. Therefore, this is expected to aid in growth of the market.
Furthermore, increasing approval of novel treatments such as immune cell gene therapy to treat the condition is also expected to aid in growth of the global acute lymphoblastic lymphoma market. For instance, in August 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) manufactured by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. The therapy is indicated for patients up to 25 years of age with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Also, various private and public organizations are engaged in extensive research to develop novel therapeutics, which in turn is expected to bolster the market growth during the forecast period. For instance, the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS) has funded over US $ 1.2 Billion in cutting-edge research to develop cure for blood cancer. LLS is also focused on improving the lives of patients by providing free information and support services.
However, higher treatment cost and adverse effects of the CAR-T cell therapy are factors restraining the market growth. According to the survey by American Journal of Managed Care (AJMC), February 2018, the initial treatment cost of for the approved CAR-T cell therapies developed by Novartis AG is around US$ 475,000 per patient, respectively.
Regional segmentation of the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market by Coherent Market Insights comprises North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America is expected to hold a dominant position in the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market over the forecast period, owing to rising prevalence of the disease and rising number of clinical trials undertaken by organizations in the region to address the unmet medical needs of patients. According to the American Cancer Society, 2016, an estimated 5,970 new ALL diagnoses and 1,440 deaths from ALL were registered in 2017. Also, according to the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, about 3,000 people aged below 20 years are found to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia each year in the U.S.
Moreover, the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, U.S. is focusing on improving outcomes for children with leukemia by undertaking clinical trials to develop novel therapeutics for the condition. For instance, in 2012, the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital initiated trials for ALLR18 for pediatric relapsed or refractory precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Moreover, in 2015, Juno Therapeutics, Inc. developed JCAR015 (CD19-targeted CAR T cells), which is currently in the Phase 2 clinical trial, indicated for treating adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).
Manufacturers in the market are focusing on introducing CAR-T cell therapies through strategic collaborations, which is expected to increase the clinical outcomes for ALL. For instance, in 2014, Pfizer, Inc. and Collectis collaborated to develop novel CAR-T immunotherapies. The companies initiated Phase 1 clinical trial for UCART19 in 2016, indicated for pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory B-ALL.
Key players operating in the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market include Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Inc., Genzyme Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline Plc., ERYTECH Pharma, Talon Therapeutic, Inc., Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Biogen Idec, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Celgene Corporation.
On the basis of drug type, global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market is segmented into:
- Chemotherapy Drugs
- Nelarabine (Arranon)
- Blinatumomab (Blincyto)
- Clofarabine (Clolar)
- Erwinia (Erwinase)
- Pegaspargase (Oncaspar)
- Vincristine (Marqibo)
- Immunotherapy Drugs
- Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
- Targeted Therapy Drugs
- Imatinib (Gleevec)
- Dasatinib (Sprycel)
- Nilotinib (Tasigna)
On the basis of indication, global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market is segmented into:
- Precursor B Cell ALL
- Mature B Cell ALL
- Precursor T Cell ALL
On the basis of distribution channel, the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market is segmented into:
- Hospital Pharmacies
- Retail Pharmacies
- Online Pharmacies
On the basis of region, the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapeutics market is segmented into:
- North America
- Latin America
- Asia Pacific
- Middle East