Clostridium difficile, which produces gram-positive bacterium, is an anaerobic toxin that gets transmitted through fecal-oral route. Clostridium difficile infection occurs during antibiotic treatment or can be caused due to healthcare associated infection with clinical manifestation ranging from asymptomatic infection to watery diarrhea or serious intestinal condition such as colitis and colonic perforation. This infection can be diagnosed by enzyme immunoassays for toxins or Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and nucleic acid amplification tests for Clostridium difficile toxin genes or endoscopy. Limited types of drugs such as metronidazole, fidoxamycin and vancomycin are only available for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. In case of any severe pain or toxic megacolon in abdominal wall, patients undergo surgery for removal of infected portion. High prevalence of this disease and occasional disease outbreaks in the emerging economies are expected to drive growth of Clostridium difficile infection treatment market. However, alternative therapy for broad spectrum antibiotic such as cephalosporins or fluoroquinolone will hinder the growth of Clostridium difficile infection treatment market.
The Global Clostridium Difficile Infection Treatment Market Taxonomy:
By Drug Class
- Other Drug Class
By Route of Administration
- Intravenous / Parenteral
By Distribution Channel
- Hospital Pharmacies
- Retail Pharmacies
- Online Pharmacies
The Global Clostridium Difficile Infection Treatment Market Driver
Increasing prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection to boost Clostridium difficile infection treatment market. Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent in old people, people with weak immune system, people under long term broad spectrum antibiotic, and people who have undergone intestinal surgery. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Clostridium difficile is the major cause of healthcare associated infection causing around 500,000 infection and 29,000 deaths per year in the U.S. The recent increase in incidences and severity of Clostridium difficile is subjected to increasing use of broad spectrum antibiotic such as cephalosporins, clindamycin, penicillin or fluoroquinolone and emergence of hypervirulent NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 strains, which are more resistant to present class of antibiotics. Furthermore, lack of compliance of hygiene norms in hospitals and uncontrolled use of broad spectrum antibiotic is increasing the rate of prevalence of this infection. All these factors are expected to drive growth of Clostridium difficile infection treatment market.
Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection demands for strengthening of research and development program, thereby propelling growth of Clostridium difficile infection treatment market. For instance, in 2017, Actelion conducted phase III clinical trial for comparing cadazolid with vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. Furthermore, in 2018, Rebiotix Inc., a clinical stage microbiome company initiated phase III trials for microbiota drug, RBX2660 for rehabilitation of microbial flora after Clostridium difficile infection and mechanism of restoration was demonstrated by using collaborator, CoreBiome’s BoosterShot technology. Moreover, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designated RBX2660 as Breakthrough Therapy for its potential to prevent recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. In 2017, Finch and Crestovo merge aimed at development of microbiome pipeline for Clostridium difficile infection.
Furthermore, development of better diagnostic tools will also drive growth of Clostridium difficile infection treatment market. For instance, Quidel introduced Solana, a FDA approved molecular assay for qualitative Clostridium difficile infection detection. The company claims it as a quick and accurate diagnosis that can process 12 samples in one-shot in 35 min. Moreover, in 2017, Roche developed a Cobas Cdiff nucleic acid test for use on an automated Cobas Liat System, which uses a real time PCR for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin B. Therefore, therapeutic and diagnostic advancements will enhance Clostridium difficile infection treatment market.
The Global Clostridium Difficile Infection Treatment Market – Regional Analysis
On the basis of region, the global Clostridium difficile infection treatment market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America is expected to be a dominant market region over the forecast period due to increasing prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection in this region. Furthermore, European economies are expected to face a decline in Clostridium difficile infection treatment market due to mandatory surveillance, monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, and reformed compliance with isolation, hand washing, and hygiene protocols. The statistics revealed by Public Health England suggests that Clostridium difficile infection has substantially decreased from 55,498 cases to 13,361 cases between the period of 2007- 2008 and 2013 -2014. Asia pacific is the largest market region due to poor healthcare infrastructure and facilities, and lack of hygiene conditions.
The Global Clostridium Difficile Infection Treatment Market - Competitors
The major players operating in the Clostridium difficile infection treatment market include Merck & Co., Inc., Baxter International Inc., Sanofi S.A., Pfizer limited, Novartis, Astellas Pharma Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, AstraZeneca Plc., Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd (Sub. of Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.), and Mylan N.V.