Histone deacetylases (HDACs), also called as lysine deacetylases, are enzymes that remove acetyl group from the lysine (amino acid) present on histones. This ensures wrapping up of histones on the DNA more tightly and suppresses the gene effect. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) works exactly opposite to the histone deacetylases and is related to gene transcription. Thus, DNA expression is regulated by acetylation and de-acetylation. Aberrations and mutations induced into HDACs are known to develop cancers and some other chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis, etc. Histone deacetylases inhibitors are agents that inhibit the activity of HDAC (deacetylation) and instigate apoptosis of tumor cells. In humans, there are around 18 HDACs, which are categorized into four classes - HDAC I, II (A and B), III and IV.
Global Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Market Drivers
Research and development activities related to HDACs are expected to propel the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth. For instance, in May 2018, EddingPharm Oncology Co. Ltd. and Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. commenced a study on combination of exemestane and entinostat (HDAC) for the treatment of advanced breast cancer in Chinese patients. Exemestane lowers the level of estrogen (it drives the breast cancer cell growth) and entinostat is expected to enhance the anti-tumor effect of exemestane. Currently, it’s in the third phase of clinical trials and is being studied for the safety and efficacy of the combined drugs.
Furthermore, in June 2016, The Netherlands Cancer Institute commenced a clinical trial study of vorinostat, a drug for the treatment of skin neoplasms. It is being studied for the safety and efficacy, and around 22 participants are involved in it. Currently, it is in the second phase of clinical trial. Such research activities are expected to accelerate the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth.
Approvals of the drugs related to histone deacetylases from regulatory bodies are expected to boost the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth. For instance, in February 2015, Novartis AG received approval for Farydak from U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA). It is being used for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. It is approved for the treatment in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone. Farydak is the first HDAC inhibitor to receive an approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma. These factors are expected to propel the global histone deacetylase market growth.
Global Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Market Regional Analysis
North America is expected to hold a dominant position in the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market, over the forecast period. Factors such as increasing prevalence of cancer patients is expected to drive the North America’s histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth. For instance, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH), around 439.2 (per 100,000 men and women) cases of cancer were found in a time span of 2011–2015, in the U.S. This may indicate a higher adoption for HDAC inhibitors and thereby, is expected to impact positively on the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth.
Global Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Market Restraints
Side effects associated with the inhibitors of HDAC may hamper the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth. Farydak can have side effects such as severe diarrhea, fatal cardiac events, and arrhythmia while Zolinza can cause swelling on face, lip, etc., clotting of blood in legs or lungs, and sometimes difficulty in breathing. These side effects may obstruct the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market growth.
Global Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Market Key Players
Some of the major players operating in the global histone deacetylase inhibitors market include, Novartis AG, Merck & Co. Inc., Celgene Corp., Acrotech Biopharma LLC, and AbbVie Inc.
Global Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Market Taxonomy
The global histone deacetylase inhibitors market is segmented on the basis of drug, distribution channel, and regions.
- Zolinza (Vorinostat)
- Istodax (Romidepsin)
- Beleodaq (Belinostat)
- Farydak (Panabinostat)
By Distribution Channel
- Hospital pharmacies
- Retail pharmacies
- Online pharmacies
- North America
- Latin America
- Asia Pacific
- Middle East