Thebaine is an opioid alkaloid also called as codeine methyl enol ether. Although it is a minor constituent of opium i.e. thebaine is chemically similar to codeine and morphine, thebaine has stimulatory effects instead of depressant effects. Thebaine is white crystalline substance, which is slightly soluble in water. It is more lethal substance as compared to morphine therefore it said to be poisonous alkaloid. At high doses thebaine can cause convulsions, which is similar to strychnine poisoning. Synthetic enantiomer of thebaine show analgesic effects, which is mediated through opioid receptors. Pharmacodynamics of thebaine are that it has a stimulatory effect by acting on opioid receptors, which are present in the central nervous system. Thebaine is a main alkaloid extracted from papaver bracteatum and it can be converted industrially into a number of compounds such as oxycodone, nalbuphine, oxymorphone, naltrexone, naloxone, and buprenorphine, which has therapeutic applications. Thebaine is listed as class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 in the U.K. In the U.S, it is listed as Schedule II Drug as per Analog Act. In Canada, thebaine is listed as Schedule 1 Drug substance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.
Thebaine Market drivers:-
Launch of new campaigns to promote drug abuse treatment is expected to be a major driver for growth of global thebaine market. For instance, in 2018, Trump administration i.e. White House Administration launched a multi-million dollar opioid awareness campaign for young adults. This campaign aims at curbing addition of opioid among young population. This campaign also spreads awareness by sharing true life stories of drug addicts to educate teens as well as young adults. According to a survey conducted by Substance Abuse and Mental health Services administration in 2018, opioid crisis kills an average of 116 Americans annually. Such government organized campaigns and high number of people dying due to opioid crisis are expected to encourage people to get rid of substance abuse addiction using different treatments available to live a healthy life.
Robust pipeline of thebaine drugs is expected to drive thebaine market growth. For instance, in 2017, National institute of Health and Welfare’s drug Naloxone hydrochloride 20mg/ml completed phase 2 clinical trials. Naloxone hydrochloride is used to treat opioid drug abuse.
University of British Coloumbia’s drug Naloxone completed phase 2 in 2016. Naloxone is used to treat pain related to post-operation process as well as acute pain treatment. Trevi Therapeutics’s drug Albuphine Hcl ER tablets 90 mg has completed phase 2 clinical trials in 2016. Albuphine HCl ER tablets 90 mg is used to treat Prurigo Nodularis, which is a nodular skin disease.
Increasing number of drug abuse patients is also expected to boost growth of the thebaine market. According to a survey conducted by Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC), in 2017, more than 2 million people died due to opioid overdose.
Ban of certain thebaine drugs is a major factor than restraining thebaine market growth. For instance, in 2017, FDA advised manufacturers to remove oxymorphone from the market due to opioid crisis.
Thebaine Market Regional Analysis:-
North America is expected to hold a dominant position in global thebaine market due to robust pipeline. For instance, New York state Psychiatric Institute’s drug Pioglitazone (oxycodone) has completed Phase 2 clinical trials in 2016. Pioglitazone (oxycodone) is used in the treatment of drug abuse (Opioid Abuse). Launch of new drugs is expected to fuel theabine market growth. For instance, in 2017, ANI Pharmaceuticals Inc., a specialty pharmaceutical company, launched Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution 100m/5ml. Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution is used to treat acute pain.
Europe thebaine market is expected to witness significant growth due to robust pipeline of thebaine drugs. For instance, University children’s hospital’s drug Nalbuphine completed Phase 1 clinical trials in 2017. Nalbuphine is used to treat pain related to intravenous injections especially for used in infants.
Launch of new generic drugs is expected to support Asia Pacific thebaine market growth. For instance, in 2017, Daiichi Sankyo Company Ltd., a global pharmaceutical company launched generic version of oxycodone immediate release formulation. Oxycodone immediate release formulation, which is used to treat cancer pain.
Thebaine Market Key Players:-
Key players operating in global thebaine market include API Labs Inc., Alcaliber S.A., Sanofi S.A., Faran Shimi pharmaceutical Co., Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Noramco Inc,. and Tasmania Alkaloids Pvt. Ltd.
Thebaine Market Taxonomy:-
By Distribution Channels:-
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