The global acid dyes market size is projected to surpass US$ 320 million by 2023, and register a CAGR of 6.1% over the forecast period (2019 - 2027).
Acid dyes belong to a class of dyes that are water soluble and carry anionic properties. Dyes usually have a complex chemical structure containing sulphonyl or amino group which makes them soluble in water. Dyes used in the textile industry have very low pH levels, and are primarily used for dying wool, polymides, and silk, but not for dyeing cotton due to its lack of affinity for cotton cellulose. Acid dyes are classified into three types based on their dyeing behavior, cost, and level dyeing properties. Acid dyes generally do not contain any toxic ingredients, however the intermediaries used in the manufacturing process have been found to contain toxic agents.
Dyes have major application in the textile industry in the manufacturing process of fabric dyes. In the textile industry, dyes are used on silk and protein fibres, and synthetic fibre nylon, however have less use in the manufacture of other synthetic fibres. In the medical field, acid dyes are divided into two classes depending on their application. Acid dyes are used for dyeing basic tissue proteins, and basic dyes are used for colouring other tissue components and cell nuclei. Acid dyes have a wide application for staining textile fibres such as wool, silk, nylon, and are also effective in enhancing durability, strength, and colour of the fabric. As a result, this industry is expected to generate a high demand for acid dyes over the forecast period. Furthermore, growing preference of acid dyes over other alkaline dyes owing to their benefits such as cost effectiveness, durability, resistance to sunlight and water, strength, and colour stability are driving the overall market growth.
However, the complex molecular structure of acid dyes can cause sensitization in humans. Exposure or ingestion of dye dust can increase risk of illness among factory workers. Furthermore, some toxic intermediaries used in the manufacture of acid dyes such as benzidine and o-toluidine have carcinogenic properties. Majority of manufacturers have ceased the use of these dyes, and are opting for safer and cheaper alternatives. As a result, these factors are expected to hamper the growth of the global acid dyes market.
Owing to the rapidly expanding textile and leather industries, the Asia Pacific region is expected to account for a significant market share. Furthermore, the growing production of fabrics such as silk and nylon in countries such as India and China is adding to the demand for acid dyes in this region. Some of the manufacturers based in Europe and North America are shifting their manufacturing base to Asia Pacific. Europe is expected to witness a considerably slower growth owing to strict regulations by environmental agencies in the region. For instance, production of Acid Red 128, has been banned in Europe owing to the toxic intermediaries used in its manufacturing process. However, growing awareness and preference for ecofriendly products is expected to positively impact the market growth in the region.
Some of the prominent players operating in the global acid dyes market are Dow chemical company, Clarian International, European color, Atul Limited, and BASF SE among others.