Monobodies are synthetic binding proteins in which fibronectin type III domain (FN3) is used as a molecular scaffold. Monobodies are robust alternative to antibodies to create target-binding proteins. The term monobody was devised by Koide group in 1998. Monobody belong to a class called antibody mimics aiming to overcome the shortcomings of natural antibody. A major advantage of monobody is that it can be used as genetically encoded intracellular inhibitors. Adnexus (now a part of Bristol-Myers Squibb), uses monobody technology to inhibit tumour angiogenesis since 2007.
Monobody – a technology with great potential in Cancer Treatment
Monobody is a technology which has great potential in the treatment of cancer. Monobody is independent of their environment and can be used as genetically encoded inhibitors. When a monobody binds to a protein then it work as an inhibitor of that protein.
Pegdinetanib, also known as Adnectin, is an antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 has entered in clinical trial II for the treatment of gliblastoma. Adnectins is based on 10th fibronectin type III domain designed to bind with high affinity and specificity to relevant targets. There are three solvent accessible loops (BC, DE and FG) which are responsible for binding. Various monobody proteins have been developed for clinical efficacy against cancer and infections. The market of monobody will be high in developed region like America because of availability of advance medical technology, good medical facilities and medical infrastructure.
Success of therapeutic antibodies has sparked a growing interest to create molecules that bind to the target molecule specifically and efficiently. A common alternative process is that the libraries of monobody being constructed which can be obtained by capturing natural diversity of an antibody.
Research in the field of Monobody
Researchers at the University of Illinois, Chicago identified a monobody, NS1, which can block oncogene activity. 30% of all cancers are due to RAS mutation. RAS mutation is also found in 90% of pancreatic cancers and frequently occurs in colon cancer, lung cancer and melanoma. The NS1 monobody bind to RAS protein molecule and inhibits its oncogenic activity.
Monobody – a better alternative
Antibodies are successful tools used in diagnostics, purification and therapeutics. Antibodies have their limitations also like high product cost and low stability. Alternative tools based on nucleic acid (aptamers), polypeptides (engineered binding proteins) and inorganic matrices have received attention recently. With increasing research activities for drug development in cancer, more information would be gathered with respect to monobodies too. Because of high specificity and affinity monobodies have potential and can be used in organ transplant in near future and can affect the antibodies market. Successful outcomes will boost investors to develop this technology and address the unmet need of cancer patients undergoing antibody therapy. Use of monobodies as therapeutic drug improves patient situation and hence companies are striving to develop monobodies to be used as therapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancer.
Introduction of monobody will have a major impact in developed regions
The rate of organ transplantation in the U.S. is high. According to National Kidney Foundation there are currently 121,678 people waiting for organ transplant in the U.S of which 100,791 await kidney transplant. Monoclonal antibodies are used in successful transplant and are administered before transplant. It will become one of the major drivers for monobody based therapeutic drugs market. Monobody technology requires high investment to commercialize. The advancement of monobody technology to treat cancer will have an impact on the existing antibody treatment technologies.
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