African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are highly contagious viral diseases of pigs. They are clinically identical and cannot be definitively distinguished from one other in the field. A diagnosis must be verified by laboratory tests. These diseases may seem to be identical; however, they are caused by totally unrelated viruses. CSF, often called as 'hog cholera', is caused by a virus from the pestivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae and is closely related to the virus that causes bovine viral diarrhea (mucosal disease) in cattle and border disease (hairy shaker disease) in sheep. The virus that causes ASF is unrelated to the virus that causes classical swine fever and has a more complex genetic makeup. Pigs are the only animals affected by both ASF and CSF; humans and other animals are not affected by these diseases.
The global swine fever vaccine market is estimated to be valued at US$ 2,724.5 million in 2022 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 5.9% during the forecast period (2022-2030).
Figure 1. Global Swine Fever Vaccine Market Share (%) in Terms of Value, by Distribution Channel, 2022
Increasing outbreaks of swine fever are expected to drive the swine fever vaccine market growth.
The increasing outbreaks of swine fever is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, as of May 9, 2022, 259 pigs have died in Meghalaya’s Ri-Bhoi district in India due to African Swine Fever (ASF), according to a senior official of the Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Department. The first outbreak was reported by the Veterinary department on April 13, 2022 following which instructions were issued under the Prevention and Control of Infectious and Contagious Diseases in Animals Act, 2009, banning movement of pigs, slaughter, and supplies at Umshorshor village, Meghalaya, India, and within 10 km of its vicinity.
|Base Year:||2021||Market Size in 2022:||US$ 2,724.5 Mn|
|Historical Data for:||2017 to 2020||Forecast Period:||2022 to 2030|
|Forecast Period 2022 to 2030 CAGR:||5.9%||2030 Value Projection:||US$ 4,320.5 Mn|
Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck Animal Health), Ceva, Zoetis Services LLC, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Indian Immunologicals Ltd., Bioveta, a.s., Komipharm, and EC21 Inc.
|Restraints & Challenges:||
Figure 2. Global Swine Fever Vaccine Market Share (%), by Region, 2022
Increasing research and development activities by government and non-government organizations and key players in the market are expected to drive the market growth during the forecast period.
Increasing efforts by the governments of various countries and key players in the market to develop swine fever vaccines are expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in June 2022, Vietnam had developed an African swine fever vaccine, NAVET-ASFVAC, for pigs in partnership with the U.S. The Vietnamese researchers worked with the U.S. scientists on the NAVET-ASFVAC jab since 2020.
Global Swine Fever Vaccine Market – Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to over 100 countries across the globe, and the World Health Organization declared it a public health emergency on January 30, 2020.
The coronavirus pandemic had negatively impacted the development, production, and supply of medicines and the growth of the pharmaceutical businesses of various companies across the globe. The lockdown has resulted in the closure of industrial establishments, except for the manufacturing of essential commodities, and there has been a disruption in the supply chain of pharmaceuticals. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic had affected the economy in three main ways: 1) by directly affecting the production and demand; 2) disrupting distribution channels; 3) causing a financial impact on firms and financial markets.
Supply chain and manufacturing activities in India, China, and the U.S. were disrupted due to the global lockdown, while many countries such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, and others are facing problems with regard to the transportation of drugs and vaccines from one place to another. Due to all these reasons, the growth of the global swine fever vaccine market was negatively hampered.
Global Swine Fever Vaccine Market: Restraint
The major factors that hinder the growth of the global swine fever vaccine market include stringent regulatory approvals. The federal agencies involved in the approval of animal medicines are the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (biologics such as vaccines), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (pharmaceuticals), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (pesticides such as flea and tick medicine). While undergoing approval, animal medicines are vigorously researched and tested for safety, purity, and efficacy, a process that can take five to seven years and cost tens of millions of dollars. Thus, stringent regulatory approvals may act as a restraint for the market growth.
Major players operating in the global swine fever vaccine market include Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck Animal Health), Ceva, Zoetis Services LLC, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Indian Immunologicals Ltd., Bioveta, a.s., Komipharm, and EC21 Inc.
There are two types of swine fever – Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and African Swine Fever (ASF). Classical swine fever (CSF) is an extremely contagious viral disease in pigs. The severity of the disease varies with the strain of the virus, the immune status of the herd, and the age of the pig. African swine fever, on the other hand, is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease affecting both domestic and feral swine of all ages. Acute forms of both ASF and CSF can cause high death rates, with mortality approaching 100% in the most severe form of ASF. Both diseases may also occur in milder forms with lower mortality rates. Swine fever could be considered a possibility in case of a sudden increase in deaths in a group of pigs. Clinical signs of acute forms of both ASF and CSF include depression, fever, loss of appetite, and red, purple, or blue blotching of the ears, nose, and limbs. Vomiting and diarrhea (bloody diarrhea for ASF) may occur as the disease progresses, along with breathing difficulties and coughing. The diseases spread through direct contact with infected pigs or contact with contaminated pens, trucks, or clothing. In both diseases, pigs can remain carriers of the disease for long period and therefore moving pigs during an outbreak must be restricted.
Increasing efforts by the government bodies to create awareness and prevent the spread of swine fever by organizing awareness campaigns are expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in June 2022, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced new efforts to help prevent the introduction and spread of African swine fever in the U.S. Through an outreach and awareness campaign called “Protect Our Pigs,” APHIS will support commercial pork producers, veterinarians, and pig owners with information and resources to help safeguard America’s swine population and the pork industry.
Key features of the study:
“*” marked represents similar segmentation in other categories in the respective section.