Typhoid is a bacterial infection that can lead to a high fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. It can be fatal and is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. The typhoid fever is usually caused due to ingestion of contaminated food or water. Typhoid vaccines prevent typhoid fever and provide protection against it. World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended three typhoid vaccines for use, which include live attenuated vaccine, capsular polysaccharide vaccines, and conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) consists of Vi antigen that is coupled to a carrier protein. In this vaccine, polysaccharide is attached to a more complex protein. In infants, these cells can effectively develop immune protection against pathogens. Polysaccharides are weaker by itself, however, by binding to a protein carrier, polysaccharides can enter into important parts of the immune system with ease and can get more easily noticed by the immunity system then the system can produce antibodies itself. These are the main advantages of conjugate vaccines over other vaccine type. There are currently only two conjugate vaccines available in the market i.e., Peda-Typh manufactured by Bio-Med Pvt. Ltd. and Typbar TCV manufactured by Bharat Biotech. Both the vaccines are present in private market (i.e. India).
The global TCV vaccines market is estimated to be valued at US$ 332.6 million in 2022, and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 12.1% over the forecast period (2022-2030).
Figure 1. Global TCV Vaccines Market Share (%), By Region, 2022
Increasing prevalence of typhoid is expected to drive growth of the global typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) market over the forecast period.
According to the World Health Organization Report Published on January 2018, about 11–20 million people fall sick due to typhoid and about 128,000 to 161,000 people die due to it every year, globally.
According to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2017, typhoid and paratyphoid fever incidence rates vary in different countries from 6/100,000 to 1,173/100,000 persons per year.
International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimated that in 2016, there were around 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths, globally.
However, according to European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), 2016, typhoid and paratyphoid fever is relatively a rare disease in the (EU/EEA) The European Economic, mainly acquired while travelling to countries outside of the EU/EEA, particularly in South Asia, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, which are the top three countries with travel-associated typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases.
TCV Vaccines Market Report Coverage
|Base Year:||2021||Market Size in 2022:||US$ 332.6 Mn|
|Historical Data for:||2017 to 2021||Forecast Period:||2022 to 2030|
|Forecast Period 2022 to 2030 CAGR:||12.1%||2030 Value Projection:||US$ 828.8 Mn|
GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Sanofi SA, Bharat Biotech, PT BIO FARMA, and PaxVax, Inc.
|Restraints & Challenges:||
Figure 2. Global TCV Vaccines Market Value (US$ Mn), By Vaccine Brand, 2022
Increasing public initiatives for promoting and advancing the development of innovative products is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period.
Public organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and others are highly active in creating awareness regarding diseases such as typhoid and driving immunization efforts against such diseases, which is expected to drive growth of the typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) market.
For instance, in April 2018, Gavi designated US$ 85 million to fund introduction of this vaccine in low income countries across Africa and Asia region.
In October 2017, WHO recommended introduction of typhoid vaccine for children over six months in endemic regions such as Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. It also recommended catch-up vaccination whenever possible, prioritizing children and adolescents up to 15 years of age.
Moreover, the World Health Organization (WHO) pre-qualified a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) Typbar TCV, manufactured by Bharat Biotech in January 2018. This WHO pre-qualification enables the procurement and supply of this vaccine to UNICEF, the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and GAVI (a vaccine alliance) supported countries.
In October 2017, WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) re-emphasized the importance of the use of typhoid vaccines in low- and middle-income countries, as well as for the control of endemic typhoid.
Global TCV Vaccines Market – Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
During this COVID-19 pandemic, pharmaceutical business, clinical tool companies and likewise biotechnology firms are facing difficulties that are occurring from the interruption in supply chains and the demand to transform service processes. Moreover, there is slight impact on the TCV vaccines market as due to lockdown and travel restriction there is a delay in the vaccination schedule for infants. As the researches reveal that there is no relationship between COVID-19 and TCV vaccine. Thus, COVID-19 restriction and transportation problem affects the TCV vaccine market.
Global TCV Vaccines Market - Restraint
Limitations associated with available vaccines such as reduced or no immunogenicity in younger children and infants, duration of protection is only up to three years for polysaccharide vaccine and seven years for oral live vaccine, which in turn, requires repeat doses and alternative platforms for vaccine delivery, short duration of protection (three-five years) and efficacy only in those over two years old have limited use of these vaccines up to certain extent restraining growth of the market.
Moreover, although millions of children and adults are vaccinated to prevent occurrence of infectious diseases, several research studies have evaluated reoccurrence of some adverse events after immunization. Such adverse events are associated with errors such as excess dose, incorrect vaccine reconstitution, and improper storage of vaccines during immunization. Such reoccurrence of adverse events following immunization is resulting in declining interest of people for booster dose of vaccines.
Major players operating in the global TCV vaccines market include GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Sanofi SA, Bharat Biotech, PT BIO FARMA, and PaxVax, Inc.
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