B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) Targeted Therapy – An innovative therapy for Multiple Myeloma
Multiple myeloma (MM) refers to a clonal plasma cell malignant neoplasm that is observed in the soft, spongy tissue of the bone marrow. The plasma cells are a crucial part of the immune system, which helps to fight against various types of infections and several other diseases. Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer formed by malignant plasma cells and characterized by low blood counts, renal failure, hypercalcemia, immune suppression, monoclonal gammopathy, and anemia. Also, multiple myeloma remains as an incurable disease. According to the American Cancer Society, in 2017, an estimated 30,280 adults (17,490 men and 12,790 women) in the U.S. will be diagnosed with multiple myeloma and 12,590 deaths (6,660 men and 5,930 women) will occur in U.S. in 2017 due to multiple myeloma disease. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information 2014, multiple myeloma represents 8.2% of all blood cancers in Africa.
B-Cell maturation antigen (BCMA), is a cell surface protein that is expressed on the malignant plasma cells. The expression profiles exhibited by TACI and BAFF-R are comparatively lower than that of the BCMA in multiple myeloma patients. Also, these antigens are hardly detected in the malignant plasma cells thus suggesting BCMA to be a standard choice over the other targeting antigens. The expression of BCMA gradually increases with the progression from normal Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MUGA) to smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) to active multiple myeloma. This unique expression profile is exhibited only by the BCMA cells as they have a very restricted expression pattern and are unexpressed in normal human tissues. BCMA-target therapy treatment has thus gained traction for cancer treatment and will be the choice of treatment especially for multiple myeloma. B-Cell Maturation Antigen possess co-immunoprecipitation property with a master transcription factor (IRF-4), that are mediated for myeloma cell survival. B-cell maturation antigen targeted therapies actively involve three major types of immunotherapies on the basis of product class namely, chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR T Cells), bispecific antibodies, and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). However, high cost of the treatment will be the barrier for the growth of the B-cell maturation Antigen (BCMA) targeted therapies market due to the cost involved in multiple combinational drug as well as maintenance therapy cost.
Key players are actively developing the products which are in preclinical and clinical trials, results on these classes of therapies have demonstrated potential benefits, mainly through the safety profile offered by these therapies.
Fig. 1. B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) targeted pipeline products
Increase in number of pipeline products are expected to boost growth of the B-cell maturation Antigen (BCMA) targeted therapies market
Market players are actively investing in research and development of novel multiple myeloma therapies to develop alternatives for existing drugs. These therapies includes chimeric antigen receptor T cells, antibody-drug conjugate, and Bi-specific antibodies. For instance, GlaxoSmithKline Plc. (GSK2857916) is developing the antibody drug conjugate drug with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma and other advanced hematologic malignancies expressing BCMA. The robust pipeline therapies for treatment of multiple myeloma is expected to boost growth of the B-cell maturation Antigen (BCMA) targeted therapies market
High unmet needs by the recurring cases of multiple myeloma is expected to drive growth of the B-cell maturation Antigen (BCMA) targeted therapies market
The patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy are at high risk of recurrence of cancer as they develop resistance to these therapy. At present there are no treatment options are available for patients with recurrent cancer and hence the BCMA targeted therapies provides breakthrough therapeutic options for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and will also cater to the current unmet needs for the treatment of relapsed or refractory myeloma, where the existing treatment modalities have proved to be clinically inefficient.
Key players operating in the development of B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) targeted therapies market are Celgene Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Novartis AG, Juno Therapeutics, Gilead Sciences. Inc., Amgen Inc., Affimed N.V, Poseida Therapeutics, Inc., and Autolus Ltd.
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