Eisenmenger Syndrome develops due to high blood pressure in the lungs, which is known as pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension occurs due to certain congenital heart defects that cause the blood to flow from left side of the heart to right side abnormally (left-to-right shunt). The congenital heart defects causing this condition include Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), atrial septal defect (ASD), Ventricular septal defect (VSD), and Atrioventricular canal defect (AV canal). The reversal of this shunt i.e. movement of blood from right side of the heart back to left side (right-to-left shunt) causes insufficient oxygen supply in the blood. This reversal occurs due to increase in blood pressure on the right side of the heart, which causes the blood to flow back to the left side, resulting in mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, in turn less oxygen supply in the blood. Moreover, continuous high pressure in the lungs causes’ irreversible damage to the blood vessels, fibrosis leading to thrombus formation. These changes are termed as pulmonary vascular obstructive disease or secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The treatment for this condition depends on individual patient’s condition and symptoms. Generally, the treatment includes relieving the symptoms and associated co-morbidities. Medications such as calcium channel blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, and blood thinning agents are prescribed by the physician.
Eisenmenger Syndrome Treatment Market Drivers
Continuous requirement of medication supports the growth of the Eisenmenger Syndrome Treatment Market. Eisenmenger Syndrome is a chronic disease and requires medication to be taken for a long period of time. The incidence and prevalence of Eisenmenger syndrome has not been properly defined due to the highly specific nature of the condition. However, according to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2010, an estimated 8% of patients with congenital heart disease are expected to develop Eisenmenger syndrome. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Congenital Heart Diseases affects nearly 1% or about 40,000 of the births per year in the U.S., 2018. Though technological and healthcare advancements have made it possible to correct congenital heart defects, the responses have been poor in case of patients suffering from Eisenmenger syndrome. Absence of treatment option which may cure the condition has fostered the growth of the global Eisenmenger syndrome treatment market, as physicians and patients have to rely on available therapies for the treatment. Most of the medications have generic versions available in the market, which has supported the growth of the market. Presence of disease targeting therapies such as Sildenafil and Bosentan have boosted the market growth over the past years and the trend is expected to remain the same, owing to unavailability of alternative options. Moreover, combination therapies is also expected to boost the growth of the market over the forecast period. European Society of Cardiology Consensus Guidelines, 2015, suggest the use of combination therapy (Sildenafil + Bosentan, and others) in the management of pulmonary hypertension. These factors are expected to boost growth of the market over forecast period.
Despite presence of disease targeting therapies such as Sildenafil, and Bosentan the survival prospects for patients suffering from Eisenmenger syndrome have continuously been low, and the prevalence of patients suffering from Eisenmenger syndrome has decreased in the developed economies such as North America and Europe. The main reason behind this is sophisticated surgical approach in the treatment in curing the congenital heart defects and fetal screening with echocardiography in early life for heart defects. Moreover, Actelion Pharmaceuticals, Ltd.’s drug Opsumit (macitentan) showed lower than expected results in the Phase 3 clinical trials in 2017. These factors are expected to restrain growth of the global Eisenmenger Syndrome Treatment Market.
Eisenmenger Syndrome Treatment Market Regional Insights
Emerging economies such as Asia Pacific and Latin America are expected to witness significant growth in the Eisenmenger Syndrome treatment market over the forecast period due to reliance on available medication for the long term treatment. Government organizations from developed regions such as North America have supported the growth of the market through spreading awareness about the condition. Organizations such as American Heart Association (AHA), Congenital Heart Information Network (C.H.I.N.), Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center, and National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) keep track of Eisenmenger syndrome and related conditions.
Key players operating in Eisenmenger Syndrome Treatment Market include Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gilead Sciences, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., AstraZeneca plc., Novartis AG, Merck & Co., Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc., Mylan N.V., and Bayer AG.
Eisenmenger Syndrome Treatment Market Taxonomy-
The global eisenmenger syndrome treatment market is segmented on the basis of drug type, distribution channel, and geography.
By Drug Type-
By Distribution Channel-