Energy is one of the basic needs of households and industrial enterprises. Energy industry accounts for the largest share in the economic as well as social development of a country. On the basis of source, the energy industry mainly includes coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and nuclear, hydropower, bio-energy, solar, geothermal, wind and marine energy. The energy industry utilizes available resources to generate easy access to energy (mainly electricity and fuels). The past 15 years have seen extraordinary changes in the consumption of energy resources due to urbanization. Unexpected growth in the renewables market in terms of investment and capacity, particularly in emerging economies is favoring the energy industry.
Rising demand for cleaner energy to reduce environmental impact has led to the adoption of non-conventional energy sources.
The coal, oil and natural gas segments have dominated the energy market in the last few years by contributing a market share 85%. According to the World Energy Council, crude oil has the largest demand and accounts for 32.9% of the global energy consumption. Crude oil prices recorded the largest percentage decline of 73% since 1986. Natural gas is the second largest energy source which accounts for 22% of the overall power generated across the globe. Coal consumption has reduced due to global climate impact and there has been a transition towards cleaner energy sources which hold 40-45% share in the electricity generated across the globe. Asia Pacific is the largest coal consumption market due to bulk availability of resources.
Solar industry accounts for only 1% of the global electricity generated. The price of solar panels decreased by 30% in the international market in 2016. Majority of the installation of solar panels was witnessed in Europe, China, and Africa and Middle East. Due to continuous improvement in the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cells, concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) segment is expected to lead to a rapid increase in solar energy efficiency which has recently reached 46% for solar cells. 0.5 GW global commercial marine energy generation capacity is established. The total theoretical wave energy potential is said to be 32 PWh/y, but it is heterogeneous and geographically distributed, technology costs for marine energy are still very high. Uranium and Nuclear production is increased by 40% in last 15 years due to rising demand of alternative resources. Two-third of global nuclear industry volume is in Asia-Pacific region. Hydropower is the leading renewable source for electricity generation, supplying 71% of the global renewable electricity. The global hydropower capacity increased by more than 30% in the last 15 years. Global wind power generation reached around 7% of the total global power generation capacity. The total investment in the global wind sector was US$ 109 billion in 2015. Geothermal global output is estimated to be 75 TWh for heat and 75 TWh for power, but is concentrated on geologic plate boundaries. Bioenergy is the largest renewable energy source and supplies 10% of the global energy supply.
Factors such as the Paris Agreement, rising demand and growth of renewable energy sources compared to non-renewable energy sources, falling global oil market price, decreased coal consumption due to a less energy intensive society, and shale gas boom along with implementation of CCS technologies in North America, growing global electrification, rapidly falling prices of solar and wind power generation are driving the growth of the global energy market.
Energy - Regulatory scenario
Key challenges in global energy industry
Energy – Key Global Conferences
Key global players in Energy
Some of the leading key players in the global energy market are Duke Energy, U.S., Engie, SA, National Grid PLC, NextEra Energy, Inc., EDF SA, Enel Italy, Dominian Resources, Iberdrola SA, Southern Company, Georgia, Hanergy, China, Endesa SA, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, LukOil, and Rosneft Oil.
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